Wednesday, November 05, 2008

4:77

Salaam all,

This is 4:77
أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ قِيلَ لَهُمْ كُفُّواْ أَيْدِيَكُمْ وَأَقِيمُواْ الصَّلاَةَ وَآتُواْ الزَّكَاةَ فَلَمَّا كُتِبَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْقِتَالُ إِذَا فَرِيقٌ مِّنْهُمْ يَخْشَوْنَ النَّاسَ كَخَشْيَةِ اللّهِ أَوْ أَشَدَّ خَشْيَةً وَقَالُواْ رَبَّنَا لِمَ كَتَبْتَ عَلَيْنَا الْقِتَالَ لَوْلا أَخَّرْتَنَا إِلَى أَجَلٍ قَرِيبٍ قُلْ مَتَاعُ الدَّنْيَا قَلِيلٌ وَالآخِرَةُ خَيْرٌ لِّمَنِ اتَّقَى وَلاَ تُظْلَمُونَ فَتِيلاً
Alam tara ila allatheena qeela lahum kuffoo aydiyakum waaqeemoo alssalata waatoo alzzakata falamma kutiba AAalayhimu alqitalu itha fareequn minhum yakhshawna alnnasa kakhashyati Allahi aw ashadda khashyatan waqaloo rabbana lima katabta AAalayna alqitala lawla akhkhartana ila ajalin qareebin qul mataAAu alddunya qaleelun waalakhiratu khayrun limani ittaqa wala tuthlamoona fateelan

The Aya says:
Have you (singular) not seen to those who were told hold back your hands, and establish and maintain prayer and make come charity? So when the physical fight was mandated upon them, then some of them fear the people as they fear Allah or more. And they said: Our nurturing Lord, why did you mandate on us the fighting? Why not delay us a little. Respond (Oh Muhammad): Matters of this life are a little and the next life is better for the one who acts consciously. And you (plural) will not be treated unfairly.

My personal note:
This Aya points to the order on the Muslims when they were in Mecca to hold back their hands. This is understood as a prohibition from a physical fight or any act of violence or force. They were however ordered to establish prayer. They were also ordered to do Zakat which is officially understood as mandatory charity. In it’s wider and still applicable understanding, it covers any act that brings fruition and maturity including charity, sharing knowledge and advice to do good and forbid evil.

This order still stands. Muslims who live in lands not ruled by Islamic law are still prohibited from using physical force or violence. This is also the understanding of the scholars of the past. Muslims are allowed to fight only if they have an Islamic government and only when the ruler orders a fight. If the people and their scholars viewed that order to be unjust, then they are free to disobey. If the order is considered just or correct, then they are obligated to obey.

The Aya reminds us that this life does not have much and it’s matters are all transient. It reminds us that the one who acts consciously of God and of oneself and society is the one that will aim for the next life and not this one.

Translation of the transliterated words:
Alam: did not?!
Note: this is a question form that brings the attention of the listener to what is being asked.
Tara: You (singular) see?
Note: the root R-Hamza-Y and it means viewing or seeing. TARA is an action that is being completed or will be completed. It means: the action of vision is happening or will be happening by the subject (second person singular). ALAM TARA takes the meaning of : Did you not see?
Ila: to
Allatheena: those who
Qeela: was said
Note: the root is Qaf-W-L and it means saying or communicating. QEELA is an action that is completed. It means: the action of saying or communicating happened by an undeclared subject.
Lahum: to them
Kuffoo: hold back/ desist
Note: the root is K-F-F and it means the palm of the hand. This then can take several conceptual meanings including hold back, if the palm is closed and so on. KUFFOO is an order or a request addressed to a group. It means hold back or desist.
Aydiyakum: your hands
Note: the root is Y-D and it means hand. It is also used conceptually for anything that shares features or functions of hands. AYDIYA means hands of. KUM means plural you. KUFFOO AYDIYAKUM is a prohibition from physical fighting.
Waaqeemoo: and make stand/ and establish
Note: WA is a letter that links what is before with what is after. This link is through inclusion, either one is included in the other or they are all included in the bigger sentence or bigger picture. WA often corresponds with “and/ addition” but the more encompassing meaning is in inclusion one in another or all in a bigger picture or sentence. AQEEMOO is derived from the root Qaf-W-M and it means standing upright or standing. The upright can be in all planes of position and for a horizontal dimension it means straight. AQEEMOO is an order or a request addressing a group of people. It means: make stand and this can be understood as establish as well as maintain.
Alssalata: the ritual prayer
Note: the root is Sad-L-Y and it means two main things in concrete. One is the lower back area and this one is used for one who is racing towards a goal and the head is close to the lower back of the one who is ahead. It is also used in concrete to mean heat and warmth and fire. The word is used for prayer as well. In this context, ALSSALATA is the ritual prayer.
Waatoo: and make come/ and bring about
Note: WA is a letter that links what is before with what is after. This link is through inclusion, either one is included in the other or they are all included in the bigger sentence or bigger picture. WA often corresponds with “and/ addition” but the more encompassing meaning is in inclusion one in another or all in a bigger picture or sentence. ATOO is derived from the root Hamza-T-Y and it means in concrete the water that comes from the rain of another land. In concrete it means the coming of something or someone with many of it’s implications. ATOO is an order addressing a group of people. It means: make come or bring about.
Alzzakata: the fruition/ what brings fruition
Note: the root is Z-K-W and it means maturing/growing. In the concrete it means bringing about fruit. ALZAKAT is what brings fruition. This can be charity because it helps others reach their fruition in term of concrete needs and it helps the giver reach his or her fruition in spiritual needs. That is the official use of the term Islamically, but it also can be extended beyond that to any act that help brings fruition or maturity, physically, spiritually and all forms of growth, maturity and purity to giver and the taker.
Falamma: so when
Kutiba: was written/ was mandated
Note: the root is K-T-B and it means putting together of things or beings and so forth. It is understood as writing because writing is the putting together of letters, words and ideas. KUTIBA is a verb form that is derived from the root. It means: writing was made to happen by an undeclared subject. Writing can take one of two meanings: one is decree and the other is the meaning of pre-knowledge/documentation but not necessarily a decree. In this context, it carries a decree or mandate meaning.
AAalayhimu: on them
alqitalu: the physical fight
Note: the root Qaf-T-L and it means killing or actions leading to death as in causing serious injury. ALQITALU is the killing or the fatal injury opposite killing or fatal injury and it points here to the physical fight.
Itha: then
Fareequn: a group
Note: the root F-R-Qaf and it means separating apart or dispersing. FAREEQUN is a product of that separation and that means a group.
Minhum: from them/ amongst them
Yakhshawna: they fear/ they fear and anticipate
Note: the root is KH-SH-Y and it carries meanings of anticipation and fear. Sometimes, both meanings are together and sometimes only fear. When there is anticipation, then there may be an element of hope mixed with the fear. YAKHSHAWNA is an action that is happening or will be happening. It means: the action of fearing the object (alnnasa= the people) is happening or will be happening by the subject (third person plural).
Alnnasa: the people/ the society
Note: ALNNAS is derived from the root Hamza-N-S and it means socializing. ALNNAS are the society/the people.
Kakhashyati: like their fear of/ like their fear mixed with anticipation anticipation of
Note: Ka means like or as. KHASHYATI is derived from the root KH-SH-Y and it carries meanings of anticipation and fear. Sometimes, both meanings are together and sometimes only fear. When there is anticipation, then there may be an element of hope mixed with the fear. KHASHYATI means fear or fear and anticipation of. Here, it points to their fear or fear mixed with anticipation of.
Allahi: Allah
Aw: or
Ashadda: more tight/ more intense
Note: the root is SH-D-D and it means tightening something or making it harder or more firm. ASAHDDU means tighter or harder or more intense.
Khashyatan: fear/ fear and anticipation
Note: the root is root KH-SH-Y and it carries meanings of anticipation and fear. Sometimes, both meanings are together and sometimes only fear. When there is anticipation, then there may be an element of hope mixed with the fear. KHASHYATAN means fear or fear and anticipation.
Waqaloo; and they said/ communicated
Note: WA is a letter that links what is before with what is after. This link is through inclusion, either one is included in the other or they are all included in the bigger sentence or bigger picture. WA often corresponds with “and/ addition” but the more encompassing meaning is in inclusion one in another or all in a bigger picture or sentence. QALOO is derived from the root Qaf-W-L and it means saying in any way possible. QALOO is an action that is completed that is derived from the root. It means the action of saying happened by the subject (third person plural). This, in turn means: they said or they happened to say or communicate.
Rabbana: Our nurturing Lord
Note: the root is R-B-B and it means nurturing and Lordship as two components of the meaning that can be present together or one at a time according to the context of the sentence. RABBA is nurturing Lord of. NA means us.
Lima: why?
Katabta: did you (singular) write/ did you mandate
Note: the root is K-T-B and it means putting together of things or beings and so forth. It is understood as writing because writing is the putting together of letters, words and ideas. KATABTA is an action that is completed. It means: writing happened by the subject (second person singular pointing to Allah). Writing can take one of two meanings: one is decree and the other is the meaning of pre-knowledge/documentation but not necessarily a decree. In this context, it carries a decree or mandate meaning.
AAalayna: on us/ upon us
Alqitala: the fighting/ the physical fighting
Note: the root Qaf-T-L and it means killing or actions leading to death as in causing serious injury. ALQITALA is the killing or the fatal injury opposite killing or fatal injury and it points here to the physical fight.
Lawla: if not/ why not/ if but not
Note: this form of usage has the literal meaning of if not. Sometimes, it carries the conditional form in the sentence. Other times it carries a skeptical form as in if—but not (as in the conditional did not happen). Sometimes it carries the meaning of why not?
Akhkhartana: you made us delayed/ you made us remain
Note: The root is Hamza-KH-R and it means remaining. AKHKHARTANA is an action that is completed. It means: the action of making the object (NA=us) remain happened by the subject (second person singular). Here, it comes after the condition. So, LAWLA AKHKHARTA carries the meaning: if you made us remain, but you did not, or alternately: why did you not make us remain? The context uses remain as delay in general.
Ila: to
Ajalin: allotted time/ deadline
Note: the root is Hamza-J-L and it means end of an entity. This entity can be time or place or anything that is determined by the sentence. AJALIN in this sentence means end of period or allotted time or deadline.
Qareebin: near/ short term/ a little
Note: the root Qaf-R-B and it means nearing in all the planes of thought as in time and space and others. QAREEB means near and in this context it may be suggesting short length of time.
Qul: say/ communicate/ respond
Note: the root is Qaf-W-L and it means saying or communicating. QUL is an order or a request addressed to a singular. It means: say or communicate.
mataAAu: belonging of/ tools to goals of/ matters
Note: the root M-T-Ain and it means when the wine becomes very red or when the rope becomes tight. This is the concrete and the concept gives the meaning of something or someone reaching where it needs to reach within the limits of time, space, etc. MATaAAu is the action of reaching the goals, or the tools of reaching the goals or anything in that process, or any combinations of the three. In this context, I chose matters of which covers aims, actions, belongings and joys of.
Alddunya: the near/ the nearer/ this life
Note: the root is D-N-W and it means nearness or nearing. ALDUNYA means the near. In this case, it points to this life that we are living in as the near. ALDDUNYA is also this life that we are living.
Qaleelun: a little/ not much
Note: the root is Qaf-L-L and it means becoming few in quality or quantity. QALEELUN is little or few in quality and in quantity.
Waalakhiratu: and the next life/ while the next life/ remaining life
Note: WA is a letter that links what is before with what is after. This link is through inclusion, either one is included in the other or they are all included in the bigger sentence or bigger picture. WA often corresponds with “and/ addition” but the more encompassing meaning is in inclusion one in another or all in a bigger picture or sentence. ALAKHIRATU is derived from the root Hamza-KH-R and it means remaining. ALAKHIRATI means the remaining or the later. This, in turn means the later life or the life after death.
Khayrun: better
Note: the root is KH-Y-R and it means choice. It is also understood as good or as better, because one would chose the good over the bad. KHAYRUN means: better or best.
Limani: to whom/ for whom
Ittaqa: made oneself act consciously
Note: ITTAQA is derived from the root W-Qaf-W and it means guarding or protecting. Since the best way to guard is through consciousness and action according to consciousness. ITTAQA is an action that is completed. It means: the action of making oneself act according to consciousness happened by the subject (third person singular).
Wala: and not
Tuthlamoona: you (plural) be transgressed against/will be treated unfairlyNote: the root is THa-L-M and it means darkness. This is one of the concrete meanings and it is used to mean decisions made in darkness which include transgression and displacement of right and wrong. TUTHLaMOONA is an action that is being completed or will be completed. It means: the action of being transgressing is happening or will be happening by the subject (undisclosed) to the object (second person plural). “Wala Tuthalmoon” in turn means: You (plural) will not be transgressed against or you will not be treated unfairly.
Fateelan: a trace
Note: the root is F-T-L and it means rubbing one finger opposite another, either to twist a thread or rope or to remove some dirt or otherwise. FATEEL is the product of that and it can be a thin twisted rope or the trace dirt that comes out. Conceptually, in this situation, it points to trace or very little.

Salaam all and have a great day.

Hussein

2 comments:

A. Ali said...

Salam bro Hussain,

Ive been following your blog on-and-off now and was amazed on the elaboration that you give on a certain verse,

Just wanna ask your opinion on a verse in Az-Zumar (surah 39)

39:53 Say: "You my worshippers/slaves those who neglected/ignored on themselves, do not despair from God's mercy, that truly God forgives the crimes all/all together, that truly He is the forgiving, the merciful."

in your opinion, who do you think does the "My" refers to? is it God or the person who is saying the verse out loud?
Thanx on advance

salam
ashraff

hussein said...

Salaam brother,

I do beleive that the MY points to God and not the speaker.

I hope this helps and take care brother

Hussein