Qala almalao allatheena istakbaroo min qawmihi lillatheena istudAAifoo liman amana minhum ataAAlamoona anna salihan mursalun min rabbihi qaloo inna bima orsila bihi muminoona
The aya says:
The elite who acted arrogantly amongst his people said to those who attained faith amongst the weak: Do you actually know that Saleh is envoyed from his Nurturing Lord? They responded: We are in what he was sent with trusting.
My personal note:
The elite and the arrogant wanted to challenge the weak who are faithful asking them if they know by facts or observation or whatever. The response was much more powerful and that they have something stronger and that is faith and safety and trust in what he came with.
In this is something important and that is if you have enough evidence to have trust and safety and so on, then you do not necessarily need other methods of verification as in observation and so on. This is as long as your method of attaning safety and faith is clean and unadulterated by wrong bias and desire and so on. This takes lots of effort of cleansing and deep honest understanding of oneself.
Translation of the transliterated words:
Qala: He said/ communicated/ responded
Note: QALA is derived from the root Qaf-W-L and it means saying in any way possible. QALA is an action that is completed that is derived from the root. It means the action of saying happened by the subject (third person singular pointing to ALMALAU). This, in turn means: He said or responded or communicated.
Almalao: the big group/ the leaders/ the elite
Note: the root is M-L-Hamza and it means full or fullness. ALMALAO in this context points to the big group or to the elite of the group because they are full of what the society needs and so on.
Allatheena: those who
Istakbaroo: acted arrogantly/acted disdainly
Note: ISTAKBAROO is derived from the root K-B-R and it means big in quality or quantity or any other feature that denotes bigness. ISTAKBAROO is an action that is completed. It means: the action of seeking to make one-self bigger happened (third person plural). Here, the bigger is in relation to being bigger than making one-self slave to Allah and that is the definition of arrogance.
Min: of/ from
Qawmihi: his people/ group
Note: the root is Qaf-Y-M and it means standing or standing upright. ALQAWM are the people that stand together and that makes the group or people or nation, basically, any group of people that stand together based on location rather than ideologiy or ideas. QAWMI means people of/ HI means him and points to Saleh.
Lillatheena: to those who
istudAAifoo: taken as weak/ taken as powerless
Note: the root is Dhad-Ain-F and it means in concrete, when the thing is folded upon itself, therefore giving two potential meanings for the derivatives, one is weakness, since the weak gets folded and the other is equal or multiplied since the folding of one object becomes two. In this context it is pointing to weakness/ powerlessnes. ISTUDAAiFOO is an action that is completed. It means: the action of taking the object (third person plural) as weak or powerless happened by an undeclared subject.
Liman: to who
Amana: attained safety/ trust/ made themselves safe/ attained faith
Note: the root is Hamza-M-N and it means safe or safety. AMANA is an action that is derived from the root and that is completed. It means: the action of making the object (not mentioned and therefore the subject and the object can be the same entity here) become safe happened by the subject (third person singular or plural). So, it ends up meaning: made himself/ themseves safe .
Minhum: amongst them
ataAAlamoona: do you (plural) know for fact? Do you actually know?
Note: ATaAALAMOON is derived from the root Ain-L-M and it means knowing/knowledge or knowledge of facts. ATaAALAMOON is a question addressed to a group. It means: do you know for fact? Do you atually know?
Salihan: Salih/ Saleh
Mursalun: one who was sent/ envoyed
Note: MURSALUNis derived from the root R-S-L and it means to envoy someone or a group of people or animals. The concrete word is RASL and it means a group of people or animals that were sent by their owners or senders. MURSALUN is a person who was sent or envoyed.
Rabbihi: his nurturing lord
Note: the root is R-B-B and it means nurturing and Lordship as two components of the meaning that can be present together or one at a time according to the context of the sentence. RABBI is nurturing Lord of. HI means Him and points to Allah.
Qaloo: they said/ they communicated/ they responded
Note: QALOO is derived from the root Qaf-W-L and it means saying in any way possible. QALOO is an action that is completed that is derived from the root. It means the action of saying happened by the subject (third person plural). This, in turn means: They said/ communicated.
Bima: by what/ with what/ in what
Bi denotes that what comes after is a tool and/or an object of an action that was mentioned. If it is an object of the action then it makes the action stronger or more intimately linked. If it is an object of the action then it makes it stronger. MA means what
Orsila: was sent/ was envoyed
Note: ORSILA is derived from the root R-S-L and it means to envoy someone or a group of people or animals. The concrete word is RASL and it means a group of people or animals that were sent by their owners or senders. ORSILA is an action that is completed. It means: the action of sending or envoying to the object (third person singular) happened by an undeclared subject
Note: BIHI in here denotes a close association with the object that was mentioned before. It points to the message that was sent with him.
muminoona: ones who make themselves safe/ trusting
Note: MUMINOONA is derived from the root Hamza-M-N and it means safety. Conceptually, it can also be extended to trust as well, because we feel safe in the entity we trust. MUMINOONA means: those who make themselves safe.
Salaam all and have a great day