بَرَاءةٌ مِّنَ اللّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ إِلَى الَّذِينَ عَاهَدتُّم مِّنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ
Baraatun mina Allahi warasoolihi ila allatheena AAahadtum mina almushrikeena
Allah and His messenger declare a breakup with those to whom you (plural) had a treaty amongst the polytheists.
This Aya declares that a treaty that was previously made with a certain group of polytheists is now broken and declared null and void.
There is a story behind this. The muslims had a treaty with the people of Mecca and held their part. However, when the people of Mecca and their allies breached the treaty this aya came to announce to all including the Muslims of Medina and the people of Mecca that the treaty of peace is now not valid anymore.
Translation of the transliterated words:
Baraatun: dissociation/ non-committal/ breakup
Note: the root is B-R-Hamza and it means dissociation from an entity. This takes many meanings according to the situation. One of them is cure from disease because it is dissociation from disease, another is creation of a living thing out of a dead thing and that is dissociation from the state of death and any other type of dissociation in between. BARAATUN means dissociation/ non- committal/ breakup.
Warasoolihi: and his messenger/ and His envoy
Note: WA is a letter that links what is before with what is after. This link is through inclusion, either one is included in the other or they are all included in the bigger sentence or bigger picture. WA is often translated as an addition (and), but inclusion probably covers the meaning a little better. RASOOLIHI is derived from the root R-S-L and it means to envoy someone or a group of people or animals. The concrete word is RASL and it means a group of people or animals that were sent by their owners or senders. RUSULUN means messengers of and is the plural of RASOOL who is the one that is sent and is used to mean the messenger because he was sent by the sender to the receiver. RASOOLI means messenger of or the envoy of. HI means him and it points to Allah.
Ila: to/ towards
Allatheena: those who
AAahadtum: you (plural) made oath with/ you (plural) exchanged promises/ had a treaty with
Note: the root is Ain-H-D and it means a promise or a demand to promise or both. It also includes the fulfillment and meeting the promise. AAaHADTUM is an action that is completed. It means: the action of making an oath in an interactive manner happened by the subject (second person plural)
Mina: og/ amongst
Almushrikeena: the ones who make partners (To Allah)/ the polytheists
Note: the root SH-R-K and it means partner or partnership and with this partnership is a measure of equality or being on par. ALMUSHRIKEENA are the ones who make partners to God in worship or in action and that includes the polytheists.