إِلاَّ الَّذِينَ عَاهَدتُّم مِّنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ ثُمَّ لَمْ يَنقُصُوكُمْ شَيْئًا وَلَمْ يُظَاهِرُواْ عَلَيْكُمْ أَحَدًا فَأَتِمُّواْ إِلَيْهِمْ عَهْدَهُمْ إِلَى مُدَّتِهِمْ إِنَّ اللّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُتَّقِينَ
Illa allatheena AAahadtum mina almushrikeena thumma lam yanqusookum shayan walam yuthahiroo AAalaykum ahadan faatimmoo ilayhim AAahdahum ila muddatihim inna Allaha yuhibbu almuttaqeena
Except for those amongst the polytheists with whom you made an oath and they did not short change you a thing and they did not collaborate with anyone against you, then you perfect your treaty with them till it’s conclusion. Indeed Allah loves the (God) mindful.
This Aya clarifies that the break comes from the other side originally in the form of short changing or collaborating with another group against the muslims.
This Aya in a sense, teaches Muslims that as long as the other group in the treaty is keeping to it’s obligations then the Muslims are ordered by Allah to keep their obligation to the other group.
Allatheena: those who
AAahadtum: you (plural) made oath with/ you (plural) exchanged promises/ had a treaty with
Note: the root is Ain-H-D and it means a promise or a demand to promise or both. It also includes the fulfillment and meeting the promise. AAaHADTUM is an action that is completed. It means: the action of making an oath in an interactive manner happened by the subject (second person plural)
Mina: og/ amongst
Almushrikeena: the ones who make partners (To Allah)/ the polytheists
Note: the root SH-R-K and it means partner or partnership and with this partnership is a measure of equality or being on par. ALMUSHRIKEENA are the ones who make partners to God in worship or in action and that includes the polytheists.
lam yanqusookum: they did not shortchange you (plural)
Note: LAM is for negation of the action that is coming next. YANQUSOOKUM is derived from the root N-Qaf-Sad and it means deficiency or lacking something or someone. YANQUSOOKUM is an action that is happening or will be happening. It means: the action of shortchanging is happening or will be happening to the object (kum=plural you) by the subject (third person plural). Because it came after then negation it takes the meaning of : they did not shortchange you/ they did not take away.
shayan: an entity/a thing
Note: the root is SH-Y-Hamza and it means entity. SHAYAN means entity. It is taken here to mean a thing or entity
Walam: and not
Yuthahiroo: they help / they ally
Note: the root is THa-H-R and it means Back (as opposed to stomach) in the concrete word. Conceptually form it can the meaning of To back/to support and also to externalize as opposed to internalize and to be on top since the back of the animal is the top of the animal and so on. YUTHAHIROO is an action that is being completed or will be completed. It means: the action of interactively allying or helping is happening by the subject (third person plural).
Ahadan: anyone/ a one
Note: the root is W-Ha-D and it means one. AHADAN means a one or anyone
Faatimmoo: then complete/ perfect/ do it to the best of your abilities
Note: FA means therefore or so or then. ATIMMOO is derived from the root T-M-M and it means to become complete or perfect or reach the best potential. In concrete it is used for the moon when it is most full, or the night when it is at it’s longest and so on. Conceptually, it is taken to mean complete or perfect or reaching the best potential. ATIMMOO is an order addressed to a group. It means: complete or perfect or do it to it’s best completion
Ilayhim: to them/ towards them
AAahdahum: their promise/ their deal/ their treaty
Note: the root is Ain-H-D and it means a promise or a demand to promise or both. It also includes the fulfillment and meeting the promise. AAaHDA means deal or promise or treaty of. HUM means them
Ila: towards/ till
Muddatihim: fulfillment of their time
Note: the root is M-D-D and it means extension or expansion in time and space and any other. Some concrete uses of the word are the high tide, when the sea expands, and also when the person lies down and expands himself or herself. MUDDATIHIM means their time or the fulfillment of the time.
Note: the root is Ha-B-B and it means in concrete seed. This word also means love. As if the seed is the product of love or the love will end up in a seed. YUHIBBU is an action that is derived from the root and that is being completed or will be completed. It means: the action of loving is happening or will be happening by the subject (third person singular pointing to God). This, in effect means, HE loves
almuttaqeena: the ones who make themselves conscious/ guard.
Note: the root W-Qaf-Y and it means guard and protect. Since the best way to guard is through consciousness, then I am using consciousness as a meaning here. ALMUTTAQEENA are the ones who make themselves conscious or the ones who make themselves guard.