قَاتِلُواْ الَّذِينَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللّهِ وَلاَ بِالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ وَلاَ يُحَرِّمُونَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَلاَ يَدِينُونَ دِينَ الْحَقِّ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْكِتَابَ حَتَّى يُعْطُواْ الْجِزْيَةَ عَن يَدٍ وَهُمْ صَاغِرُونَ
Qatiloo allatheena la yuminoona biAllahi wala bialyawmi alakhiri wala yuharrimoona maharrama Allahu warasooluhu wala yadeenoona deena alhaqqi mina allatheena ootoo alkitaba hatta yuAAtoo aljizyata AAan yadin wahum saghiroona
Fight those who have no faith in Allah and the coming day nor do they make forbidden what Allah and His messenger made forbidden nor do they abide by the binding accountability of the people of the book until they give the compensation from hand while they are humble.
This Aya came when there was some troops gathering of the byzantines in northern Arabia and what is now southern Jordan with the understanding that they were planning to attack the Muslims of Arabia and so the Prophet upon him be peace ordered for an army to be prepared to fight them and he marched north and took northern Arabia up to Aqaba in southern Jordan without a fight. It declares that it is ok to fight the people of the book who do not abide by the above mentioned rules. However, the Aya also says that Muslims will not fight them if they offer to pay the special tax called Jizya which I translated as compensation.
The concept of Jizya allows any group of any religion to keep adhering to laws of their own religion even if contradictory to Islamic law as long as they maintain a non aggression treaty and humility towards the Muslims and pay that tax and then the state is supposed to protect them, their places of worship, their laws and their dignity. It is a form of religious autonomy including in laws within the state. Examples of those laws are the manufacture and consumption of Alcohol and so on and so forth.
Note: QATILOO is derived from the root Qaf-T-L and it means killing or actions that potentially can lead to death including injury and others. QATILOO is an order addressed to a group. It means fight.
Allatheena: those who
la yuminoona: Have no faith/ do not trust/ have no safety
Note: LA is for negation of what comes next. YUMINOONA is derived from the root Hamza-M-N and it means safety. Conceptually, it can also be extended to trust as well, because we feel safe in the entity we trust. YUMINOONA is an action that is being completed or will be completed. It means: the action of making oneself safe is happening or will be happening by the subject (third person singular). LA YUMINOONA means have no faith/ do not trust/ have no safety
biAllahi: by Allah/ in Allah
Note: BI signifies an attachment or close linkage between what is before and what is after it. In a Verbal sentence it can mean attachment to the action or to the subject as it does the action. This attachment can then signify many things according to the verb and to the sentence and so on. ALLAH is Allah
bialyawmi : in the day of
Note: BI signifies an attachment or close linkage between what is before and what is after it. In a Verbal sentence it can mean attachment to the action or to the subject as it does the action. This attachment can then signify many things according to the verb and to the sentence and so on. ALYAWMI is derived from the root Y-W-M and it means day. ALYAWMI means the day of.
Note: ALAKHIRI is derived from the root Hamza-KH-R and it means remaining. ALAKHIRI means the remaining or the later. This ALYAMWMI ALAKHIRI, in turn means the later day or the day of judgment.
Yuharrimoona: do they make forbidden
Note: the root is Ha-R-M and it means “forbidding and forbidden to violate”. YUHARRIMOONA is an action that is being completed or will be completed. It means: the action of making forbidden the object (MA=what) is happening or will be happening by the subject (third person plural).
Harrama: forbade/ made forbidden
Note: the root is Ha-R-M and it means “forbidding and forbidden to violate”. HARRAMA is an action that is completed. It means: the action of forbidding or making forbidden the object (Ma= what) happened by the subject (third person singular or plural)
warasooluhu: and his messenger/ and His envoy
Note: WA is a letter that links what is before with what is after. This link is through inclusion, either one is included in the other or they are all included in the bigger sentence or bigger picture. WA is often translated as an addition (and), but inclusion probably covers the meaning a little better. RASOOLIHI is derived from the root R-S-L and it means to envoy someone or a group of people or animals. The concrete word is RASL and it means a group of people or animals that were sent by their owners or senders. RUSULUN means messengers of and is the plural of RASOOL who is the one that is sent and is used to mean the messenger because he was sent by the sender to the receiver. RASOOLU means messenger of or the envoy of. HU means him and it points to Allah.
Yadeenoona: hold them accountable/ follow
Note: the root is D-Y-N and it means debt or law or religion. What groups them together is the concept of obligation and accountability, since religion is the obligation of man towards God. YADEENOON is action that is being completed or will be completed. It means: the action of making accountable the object (DENA ALHAQQI = the right accountability) is happening or will be happening by the subject (Third person plural).
Deena: religion of/ accountability of/ law of
Note: the root is D-Y-N and it means debt or law or religion. What groups them together is the concept of obligation and accountability, since religion is the obligation of man towards God. DEENA is obligation or religion, with religion being the obligation of man towards God.
Note: the root is Ha-Qaf-Qaf and it means binding right where right means correct as well s what is due to one person (rights and obligations). ALHAQQI means the right or the binding right and so on.
Mina: of/ from
Allatheena: those who
Ootoo: they were given/ were brought
Note: the root is Hamza-T-Y and it means coming with determination. The concrete word is for the water that flows in a place where it did not rain, therefore suggesting that the water came from somewhere else. OOTOO is a completed action that is derived from the root. It means: the action of coming happened to the object (third person plural) by an undisclosed subject. It then means literally: they were brought/something was made to come to them.
Alkitaba: the book
Note: the root K-T-B and it means putting things together as in grouping the herd together or closing the lips or writing (the most common use), because in writing, one puts the letters and the ideas together. ALKITABA means, the process of writing or the book or anything related to it from the ideas to the ink and paper to the place where all is put together.
yuAAtoo: they give/ they hand
note: the root is Ain-TTA-W and it means to grab something by hand. One concrete understanding of the term is when the goat or dear raises the front legs to reach the tree branches and eat leaves or nuts and so on. Conceptually, it is understood as giving and taking probably because of handing things from one person to another. YuAATOO is an action that is happening or will be happening. It means: the action of giving the object (Aljizyata= the compensation) is happening or will be happening by the subject (third person plural)
aljizyata: the compensation/ the tax/ the payback
Note: the root is J-Z-Y and it means compensation for action that can be good or bad. ALJIZYA means the compensation or the tax and payback and in this context it is an amount of money that is being paid by the non muslims in a muslim state to maintain their autonomy from abiding by Islamic laws.
Wahum: while they/ and they
Note: the root is Sad-GHain-R and it means small or little in quality or quantity or any other feature that denotes littleness. This is the general meaning and becomes more specific according to the sentence. SAGHIROON are humbled ones or the ones who are diminuted in rank and stature and so on.