لَوْ كَانَ عَرَضًا قَرِيبًا وَسَفَرًا قَاصِدًا لاَّتَّبَعُوكَ وَلَـكِن بَعُدَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ الشُّقَّةُ وَسَيَحْلِفُونَ بِاللّهِ لَوِ اسْتَطَعْنَا لَخَرَجْنَا مَعَكُمْ يُهْلِكُونَ أَنفُسَهُمْ وَاللّهُ يَعْلَمُ إِنَّهُمْ لَكَاذِبُونَ
Law kana AAaradan qareeban wasafaran qasidan laittabaAAooka walakin baAAudat AAalayhimu alshshuqqatu wasayahlifoona biAllahi lawi istataAAna lakharajnamaAAakum yuhlikoona anfusahum waAllahu yaAAlamu innahum lakathiboona
Had it been an enticement that is close and a moderate trip then they would have joined/ followed you (singular) but the distance too much for them. And they will swear by Allah: “Had we been able, then would have come out with you (plural)”. They cause their own demise and Allah knows they are indeed untruthful.
The Aya delves into the human psyche and that those people would have come out had the offerings been great and travel relatively easy. However, the travel was distant and they also feared a stronger enemy since this battle has them fighting a Byzantine army so they reneged. Allah continues in knowing the lies that people say in finding excuses to their own failures so there is no point to lie.
Kana: was/ had been
Note: KANA is derived from the root K-W-N and it means being. KANA is an action that is completed that is derived from the root. It means: the action of being happened by the subject (third personal singular or plural). This in turn means: He was or He happened to be. LAW KANA together means: had it been.
AAaradan: presentation/ offering / enticement of/ transience
Note: the root is Ain-R-Dhad and it means width. As a conceptual meaning it has many applications such as: standing in the way or closing the road, but it also means presenting and make something seen, because things are seen better if one sees their width. AAaRADAN in this context points to what comes across of offering. Enticement/ presentation/ transience.
Note: the root is Qaf-R-B and it means nearing or becoming near. QAREEBAN means: near or close by.
Wasafaran: and trip/ and travel
Qasidan: fair/ easy/ moderate
Note: the root is Qaf-Sad-D and in concrete it points to moderation. A man that is QASD is a man who is not tall nor short, not fat nor thin. When it applies to movement, it suggests moving to the target destination in moderate pace. Conceptually, it carries the meaning of being in the middle or moving at a moderate pace or on a route that is not too easy or too rough. QASIDAN in this context carries the meaning of easy or moderate.
Note: LA is for the response to the conditional. ITTABaAAoo is derived from the root T-B-Ain and it means following footsteps or join and follow footsteps. ITTABaAAoo is an action that is completed. It means: the action of making oneself follow footsteps or join and follow footsteps of the object (KA= singular you) happened by the subject (third person plural). Because it is a response to the conditional, it takes the meaning of: then would have followed you.
Walakin: but/ but instead
baAAudat: was far/ was distant
Note: the root is B-Ain-D and it means further in time or space. In space it means farther in distance and in time, it means after. BaAADAT is an action that is completed. It means: the action of becoming far happened by the subject (ALSHUQQATU= the separation)
AAalayhimu: upon them/ on them
Alshshuqqatu: the separation/ the burden of travel
Note: the root is SH-Qaf-QAF and it means fissuring in the concrete from and that means the breaking away process. It can conceptually mean hardship and burdensome because the breaking away process can be painful and traumatic at times and so on. ALSHSHUQQATU is the separation and the break from home and environment and so on. It could also mean the burden of the travel.
Wasayahlifoona: and they will swear
Note: WA is a letter that links what is before with what is after. This link is through inclusion, either one is included in the other or they are all included in the bigger sentence or bigger picture. WA is often translated as an addition (and), but inclusion probably covers the meaning a little better. SAYAHLIFOON is derived from the root HA-L-F and it means swearing an oath. SAYAHLIFOON is an action that will be completed. It means: the action of swearing will happen by the subject (third person plural)
biAllahi: by Allah/ in Allah
Note: BI signifies an attachment or close linkage between what is before and what is after it. In a Verbal sentence it can mean attachment to the action or to the subject as it does the action. This attachment can then signify many things according to the verb and to the sentence and so on. ALLAH is Allah
Lawi: if (beginning of a conditional statement)
istataAAna: we were able/ we had been able
Note: ISTATaAANA is derived from the root TTa-W-Ain and it means willing compliance as a concept. This can be extended to obeying and so forth and also easy capability. ISTATaAANA is an action that is completed. It means: the action of seeking and achieving obeying or willing happened by the subject (first person plural). In here, it points to the ability to prepare and because it comes after the conditional, it takes the meaning of: Hade we been able.
Note: LA is the response to the conditional. KHARAJNA is derived from the root KH-R-J and it means coming out or exiting. That is the conceptual meaning and it assumes it’s more specific meaning or meanings according to the plane of thought of the sentence. KHARAJNA is an action that is completed. It means: the action coming out/ exiting/ travelling happened by the subject (first person plural). Because it is a response to the conditional, then it takes the meaning: we would have come or travelled
maAAakum: you (plural)
yuhlikoona: they cause demise of
Note: YUHLIKOONA is derived from the root H-L-K and it means dried and dead plant. This is the concrete and the abstract means death and perdition. YUHLIKOONA is an action that is being completed or will be completed. It means: the action of causing the object’s (anfusahum= themselves) death or perdition is happening or will be happening by the subject (third person plural).
anfusahum: themselves/ each other
Note: ANFUSAHUM is derived from the root N-F-S and it means to breath but is extended to mean self since the self-breathes and that defines her existence. ANFUSA is a noun that is derived from this root and it means Selves of. HUM means them.
waAllahu: and Allah
yaAAlamu: knows/ knows for fact
Note: YaAALAMU is derived from the root Ain-L-M and it means knowing/knowledge or knowledge of facts. YaAALAMU is an action that is being completed or will be completed. It means: the action of knowing the object (what is coming next) for fact is happening or will be happening by the subject (third person singular).
Lakathiboona: indeed untruthful/ indeed lying
Note: LA is for emphasis. KATHIBOON is derived from the root K-TH-B and it means a untrue. Conceptually, it can be extended at times to mean a lie, although the core of the meaning is untruth, whether it is a lie or not, conscious or not. KATHIBOON means untruthful or not lying.