Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo la tuharrimoo tayyibati ma ahalla Allahu lakum wala taAAtadoo inna Allaha la yuhibbu almuAAtadeena
The Aya says:
O you who made themselves safe, do not forbid the good of what Allah made permitted/ enjoined for you, including do not overstep boundaries. Indeed, Allah does not love the ones who overstep boundaries.
My personal note:
This Aya starts a new or new subject. It carries with it a very important rule and that is to not make forbidden what was allowed. This rule applies to this day, although sometimes one can sense that some lay Muslims and occasionally some Muslim scholars are quick to declare several things forbidden when they were not expressly forbidden in the Qur’an or the Sunna of the prophet (pbuh).
The term AHALLA can be understood in two potential ways. It can be understood as permitted and it can be understood as enjoined. Certainly what is enjoined is encompassed within what is generally permitted. So, the rule certainly forbids making what is enjoined forbidden. This is also an important rule and that is if a prohibition is met with an order that is enjoined then the enjoined order will beat the prohibition. For example Muslims are forbidden to pray at the rising of the sun or the setting of the sun, but if a person had not yet prayed his Asr (afternoon) prayer or dawn prayer then he or she will need to pray it despite that prohibition.
When it comes to things that are permitted then there is nuance and that is why sometimes one can hear this or that action is prohibited when it was not prohibited by the Qur’an or by the prophet. Also that is why the Aya says "Do not forbid the good of what Allah permitted". The general rule here is to be skeptical of such prohibition unless the action leads inevitably to a truly prohibited action or makes it more likely to commit a prohibited action. Here the prohibition falls under the rule of avoiding prelude to forbidden actions.
The Aya ends with WALA taAATADOO which I translated as do not overstep boundaries. The term is often translated as aggression or transgression. I chose overstepping boundaries because it encompasses the issue of aggression but also because the context here is not to overstep boundaries by declaring things that Allah permitted or enjoined forbidding. Also, at the same time not to make things that are not enjoined, enjoined. Those two issues may not be looked at as aggression or transgression but they both certainly fall under the coverage of the meaning of LA TaAATADOO because they are overstepping of boundaries.
Translation of the transliterated words:
Ya ayyuha allatheena: O those who
Note: the three words used here are callings.
Amanoo: made themselves safe
Note: the root is Hamza-M-N and it means safe or safety. AMANOO is an action that is derived from the root and that is completed. It means: the action of making the object (not mentioned and therefore the subject and the object can be the same entity here) become safe happened by the subject (third person plural). So, it ends up meaning: they made themselves safe.
la tuharrimoo: do not make forbidden to violate/do not forbid
Note: LA is a negation of what is coming next or an order not to do the following action. TUHARRIMOO is derived from the root Ha-R-M and it means “forbidding and forbidden to violate”. TUHARRIMOO is an action that is being completed or will be completed. It means: the action of making the object (TAYYIBATI= good things of) forbidden is happening or will be happening by the subject (second person plural). LA TUHARRIMOO is then an order not to forbid.
tayyibati: good things of
Note: the root is TTa-Y-B and it means good according the plane of thought. Conceptually, it is used for any good entity or any entity that is good in it’s nature and effect. Religiously speaking, this suggests that things that are allowed by the religion are good for us, while things that are forbidden are not good for us. TAYYIBATI means: good things of.
Ahalla: he made permitted/ He made enjoined
Note: AHALLA is derived from the root Ha-L-L and it means settling. Conceptually, this settling can be in the sought after time or place as in settling the problem or solving a problem, untying a knot and it can extend to acceptable or enjoined words or deeds. This sentence gives the context of acceptable or enjoined or allowed. AHALLA is an action that is completed. It means: the action of making the object (Tayyibatin= good things) permitted or enjoined happened by an the subject (Allah, coming up).
Lakum: to you/ for you (plural)
wala taAAtadoo: and do not aggress/ and do not overstep boundaries/ do not transgress
Note: WALA is an order to not do the following action in addition to not doing what was mentioned previously. TaAATADOO is derived from the root Ain-D-W and it means running or overstepping boundaries since the running is a form of overstepping a boundary. Conceptually, it is also used to point to animosity since animosity stems from overstepping boundaries or enemies overstep boundaries of each other. TaAATADOO is an action that is being completed or will be completed. It means: the action of overstepping boundaries or transgressing is happening or will be happening by the subject (second person plural) with some emphasis. WALA TaAATADOO is an order not to be aggressor or not to overstep boundaries and not to transgress.
la yuhibbu: loves not/ does not love.
Note: LA is negation of what comes next. YUHIBBU is derived from the root Ha-B-B and it means in concrete seed. This word also means love. As if the seed is the product of love or the love will end up in a seed. YUHIBBU is an action that is derived from the root and that is being completed or will be completed. It means: the action of loving is happening or will be happening by the subject (third person singular pointing to Allah) of the object (ALMuAATADEEN= the aggressors/ transgressors)
almuAAtadeena: the aggressors/ the transgressor
Note: the root is Ain-D-W and it means running or overstepping boundaries since the running is a form of overstepping a boundary. Conceptually, it is also used to point to animosity since animosity stems from overstepping boundaries or enemies overstep boundaries of each other. ALMuAATADEEN are the aggressors or the transgressors or the ones who overstep boundaries.
Salaam all and have a great day.