Waman yuwallihim yawmaithin duburahu illa mutaharrifan liqitalin aw mutahayyizan ila fiatin faqad baa bighadabin mina Allahi wamawahu jahannamu wabisa almaseeru
And whoever on that day gives them his back, unless edging for a fight or confining towards a group, then he positioned himself in anger from Allah and his final abode is Hell and worse is the final outcome.
The Aya continues the same theme in that withdrawal from the fight should be either a form of tactic of the battle or a withdrawal towards a group that provides safety and more strength in the fight. So, basically the haphazard withdrawal that is chaotic in nature is generally frowned upon.
The scholars argued whether this is true for any battle under a legitimate Muslim ruler vs only for that particular battle which was the first battle in Islam and therefore is much more important in the matter of perseverance and patience and so on. Both opinion may also be true with the harsher punishment for those who run from an essential battle on which the survival of the Muslim community as a whole depends and that is peculiar to that battle and may be a few others at the time of the prophet.
Waman: and whoever
Yuwallihim: give them/ turns for them
Note: YUWALLI is derived from the root W-L-Y and it means direction or following direction with some guarantee. It comes close to guardianship. WALI is either the one who is a guardian or the one who receives guardianship of another or both. YUWALLI is an action that is being completed or will be completed. It means: the action of dirceting oneself is happening or will be happening by the subject (third person singular). In this context the directing is in the form of movement away towards the subject (HIM= them).
Yawmaithin: that day
Note: YAWMAITHIN is derived from the root Y-W-M and it means day. YAWMAITHIN means that day/ day of that time.
Duburahu: his back/ his behind
Note: the root is D-B-R and it means the end of an entity in a conceptual manner. This could be the behind of the entity or it could be the conclusion of a matter or business and so forth. DUBURA means behind of . HU means him.
Note: the root is Ha-R-F and it means conceptually the edge of an entity. It is then used conceptually for many uses, including the letters of the words, because the letters are the edges of the word. MUTAHARRIFAN means edging/ moving closer or could be further.
Liqitalin: to a fight/ for a fight
Note: Li means to or for. QITAL is an interactive word that means killing opposite killing. Therefore the one in QITAL is the person that is in the process of responding to another that is trying to kill him. This, in essence is the fighting, or the response to aggression through fighting back.
Mutahayyizan: or rifting/ or turning/ moving deliberately/ confining
Note: the root is Ha-W-Z or Ha-Y-Z and it means to move slowly and deliberately or move in a deliberate fashion within a certain boundary or towards a certain boundary. MUTAHAYYIZAN means moving deliberately.
Fiatin: a group
Note: the root is F-Hamza-W and it means dividing or separating tow different portions of groups. FIATIN means a group.
Baa: landed/ positioned himself
Note: BAA is derived from the root B-W-Hamza and it means landing in a conceptual manner and therefore will take different meanings according to
the context. It is used for marriage often because the one who gets married lands in a house and so forth. BAA is an action that is completed. It means: the action of landing or placing oneself happened to the subject (third person singular).
Note: BI signifies an attachment or close linkage between what is before and what is after it. In a Verbal sentence it can mean attachment to the action or to the subject as it does the action. This attachment can then signify many things according to the verb and to the sentence and so on. GHADAB is derived from the root Ghain-Dhad-B and it means in one of the concrete meanings red or turning red. So, conceptually, it carries the meaning of revealing anger or displeasure. GHADAB means revealed anger/ displeasure.
wamawahu: and their place of resorting/ their end place/ their place of refuge/ their home
Note: WA is a letter that links what is before with what is after. This link is through inclusion, either one is included in the other or they are all included in the bigger sentence or bigger picture. WA often corresponds with “and/ addition” but the more encompassing meaning is in inclusion one in another or all in a bigger picture or sentence. MAWAHUM is derived from the root Hamza-W-Y and it means resorting or taking resort or refuge in a place or the place and time where one ultimately ends. It also could mean homing or taking refuge. MAWA means place or time of resort of or place and time of. HU means him.
Jahannamu: : hell
Wabisa: and hardship is/ and worse
Note: WA is a letter that links what is before with what is after. This link is through inclusion, either one is included in the other or they are all included in the bigger sentence or bigger picture. WA often corresponds with “and/ addition” but the more encompassing meaning is in inclusion one in another or all in a bigger picture or sentence. BISA is derived from the root B-Hamza-S and it means lion for concrete. The word is used to mean hardship or hard depending on the situation. BISA means hardship or worse in this situation.
Almaseeru: the ending/ the final outcome
Note: The root is Sad-Y-R and it means in concrete where the water ends. It is used to mean the end of a transformation or the ending of any process. ALMASEERU is the place or time of ending or both. It can also mean the ending.