يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ قُل لِّمَن فِي أَيْدِيكُم مِّنَ الأَسْرَى إِن يَعْلَمِ اللّهُ فِي قُلُوبِكُمْ خَيْرًا يُؤْتِكُمْ خَيْرًا مِّمَّا أُخِذَ مِنكُمْ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ وَاللّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
Ya ayyuha alnnabiyyu qul liman fee aydeekum mina alasra in yaAAlami Allahu fee quloobikum khayran yutikum khayran mimma okhitha minkum wayaghfir lakum waAllahu ghafoorun raheemun
O you the prophet say to those in your (plural) hands of the captives: “If Allah knows for fact in your hearts goodness, He will give you better than was taken from you and forgive you and Allah is forgiving, merciful”
My personal note:
The Aya carries a message to the captives of war in the hands of the Muslims after the battle of Badr. It basically tells them to look deep in their hearts and if they see goodness then it reassures them that Allah will give them a better compensation for their losses, whether they were physical, mental or monetary. It is telling them not to be bitter or dwell upon their losses but to be honest in their hearts and in their relationship with God.
In another subtle message, it tells the believers not to close their hearts to those “enemies” for they may turn around and become their brothers one day. So, the animosity should never be personalized or internalized or be made intractable. They fought for the freedom and the survival of their very young muslim state and those people who they fought and caught on that day may become their colleagues tomorrow and they should have a place in their hearts for them.
And this is what happened for eventually the majority of those captives of the battle became muslims at some point in the future.
Ya ayyuha: O you
Alnnabiyyu: the prophet
Note: NABIYY is derived from one of two roots either The first is N-B-Hamza and it means news. The other is N-B-Y and it means elevated. The word NABIYY means a prophet, and it could be because the prophet brings news or that he is elevated over others or both.
Note: QUL is derived from the root Qaf-W-L and it means saying in any way possible. QUL is an order addressed to a singular. It means: Say.
Liman: to who
Aydeekum: your hands/ your arms
Note: the root is Y-D and it means hand. It is also used conceptually for anything that shares features or functions of hands or the upper arm. AYDEEKUM means your hands or your arms.
Mina: of/ from
Alasra: the captives/ the prisoners of war
Note: the root is Hamza-S-R and it means to bind Something or someone by a rope. It is used for prisoners or any captive person. ALASRA are the ones who are bound or captive.
yaAAlami: He knows/ He knows for fact
Note: the root is Ain-L-M and it means knowing/knowledge or knowledge of facts. YaAALAMI is an action that is being completed or will be completed. It means: the action of knowing the object (khayran=goodness) for fact is happening or will be happening by the subject (third person singular pointing to Allah)
quloobikum: your hearts/ hearts and minds
Note: The root is Qaf-L-B and it means turning 180 degrees or upside down. The word is used for heart, because it is the organ that changes it’s moods often. Therefore QALB is our thoughts and emotions. QULOOBI are hearts and minds of or thoughts and emotions of. KUM means plural you.
Note: the root is KH-Y-R and it means choice. It is also understood as good or as better, because one would chose the good over the bad. KHAYRAN means: better or best or just goodness according to the context of the sentence.
Note: the root is Hamza-T-Y and it means in concrete the water that comes from the rain of another land. In concrete it means the coming of something or someone with many of it’s implications. YUTIKUM means the action of bringing to the object (kum= plural you) is happening or will be happening by the subject (third person singular pointing to Allah)
Note: the root is KH-Y-R and it means choice. It is also understood as good or as better, because one would chose the good over the bad. KHAYRAN means: better or best.
Mimma: than what
Okhitha: was taken
Note: OKHITHA is derived from the root Hamza-KH-TH and it means taking. OKHITHA is an action that is completed. It means: the action of taking the object (MA= what) happened by an undeclared subject.
Wayaghfir: and He forgives/ and he protectively covers
Note: WA is a letter that links what is before with what is after. This link is through inclusion, either one is included in the other or they are all included in the bigger sentence or bigger picture. WA is often translated as an addition (and), but inclusion probably covers the meaning a little better. YAGHFIR GH-F-R and it means covering for protection. The concrete word is the helmet of the fighter. GHAFOOR is the one that covers to protect. This, in turn means protection from committing the sin and protection from the consequences of sin, which also means forgiving. YAGHFIR is an action that is being completed or will be completed. It meansL the aciton of forgiving or protectively covering the object (LAKUM- to you plural) is happening or will be happening by the subject (third person singular).
Lakum: to you (plural)/ for you
waAllahu: And Allah
Ghafoorun: forgiving/ provider of protective cover/ protectively covering
Note: the root is GH-F-R and it means covering for protection. The concrete word is the helmet of the fighter. GHAFOORUN is the one that covers to protect. This, in turn means protection from committing the sin and protection from the consequences of sin, which also means forgiving
Note: the root is R-Ha-M and it means womb in concrete. This term is used to mean mercy and all the good that the womb provides. RAHEEM is the one with the womb-like mercy.