مَا كَانَ لِنَبِيٍّ أَن يَكُونَ لَهُ أَسْرَى حَتَّى يُثْخِنَ فِي الأَرْضِ تُرِيدُونَ عَرَضَ الدُّنْيَا وَاللّهُ يُرِيدُ الآخِرَةَ وَاللّهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ
Ma kana linabiyyin an yakoona lahu asra hatta yuthkhina fee alardi tureedoona AAarada alddunya waAllahu yureedu alakhirata waAllahu AAazeezun hakeemun
It was not for a prophet to take captives until he is firmly established in the land. You (plural) aim for the offerings of this life and Allah aims for the next one and Allah is dominantly strong, wise.
The Aya comes after the first battle between the muslims and the people of Mecca when the muslims won and took captives of war. The Aya remanded the prophet for taking captives of war and that was not the best thing to do at the time until he is more established in the land. So, it applies mainly and possibly only to that situation.
The Aya reminds the muslims that they should aim for the next life rather than getting distracted with the offerings of this life. It also reassures them that this is coming from Allah who is powerful but also wise. So, there is wisdom in this decision although we may not be able to grasp it.
Kana: was/ happened to be
Note: the root is K-W-N and it means being. KANA is an action that is completed that is derived from the root. It means: the action of being happened by the subject (third personal singular or plural). This in turn means: He/ they was or He/ they happened to be. MA KANA is somewhat of an idiom to mean: it should not be/ it should not happen
Linabiyyin: for a prophet/ to a prophet
Note: LI means for or to. NABIYY is derived from one of two roots either The first is N-B-Hamza and it means news. The other is N-B-Y and it means elevated. The word NABIYY means a prophet, and it could be because the prophet brings news or that he is elevated over others or both.
Yakoona: be/ becomes
Note: YAKOONA is derived from the root K-W-N and it means being. YAKOONU is an action that is being completed or will be completed that is derived from the root. It means: it will be or it becomes.
Lahu: to him/ belong to him
Asra: war captives/ captives
Note: the root is Hamza-S-R and it means to bind Something or someone by a rope. It is used for prisoners or any captive person. ASRA are the ones who are bound or captive.
Yuthkhina: He thickens/ He becomes well established/ He becomes heavy/ He increases effect
Note: the root is TH-KH-N and it means thickness/ heaviness and increase in effect of whatever kind. YUTHKINA is an action that is happening or will be happening. It means: the action of becoming thick/ heavy/ effective is happening or will be happening to the subject (third person singular)
Fee: in/ on
alardi the earth/ the land
Note: ALARDI is derived from the root Hamza-R-Dhad and it means earth or land. ALARDI is the earth/ the land.
Tureedoona: you (plural) want/ seek
Note: TUREEDOONA is derived from the root R-W-D and it means in concrete the person that goes ahead of the people looking for resources. Therefore, the word has within it the meanings of pioneering, seeking and desiring. TUREEDOONA is an action that is being completed or will be completed. It means: the action of seeking or wanting is happening or will be happening by the subject (second person plural).
Note: the root is Ain-R-Dhad and it means width. As a conceptual meaning it has many applications such as: standing in the way or closing the road, but it also means presenting and make something seen, because things are seen better if one sees their width. AAaRADA in this context points to what comes across of offering. Enticement/ presentation.
Alddunya: the closer/ the nearer/ this life
Note: the root is D-N-W and it means nearness or nearing. ALDUNYA means the near. In this case, it points to this life that we are living in as the near. ALDDUNYA in this context means the nearer or closer.
waAllahu: while Allah
yureedu: wants/ seeks/ prefers/ aims
Note: YUREEDU is derived from the root R-W-D and it means in concrete the person that goes ahead of the people looking for resources. Therefore, the word has within it the meanings of pioneering, seeking and desiring. YUREEDU is an action that is being completed or will be completed. It means: the action of seeking or wanting is happening or will be happening by the subject (third person singular pointing to Allah).
Note: ALAKHIRATA is derived from the root Hamza-KH-R and it means remaining. ALAKHIRATA means the remaining or the later. This, in turn means the later life or the life after death.
waAllahu: and Allah
AAazeezun: Dominantly strong/ dominant
Note: the root is Ain-Z-Z and it means the hard earth that will not yield under the rain and therefore, will make the rain water flow rather than seep or cause the earth to erode. It is used for entities that are strong and defeat pressure, basically the combination of strength and dominance.
Note: the root Ha-K-M and it means the steer that steers the animal. This word is used for ruling and judging as well as other meanings that contain steering as part of the concept. HAKEEM means wise or the steering. The steering means the entity that steers in the best way
Salaam all and have a great day