كَيْفَ وَإِن يَظْهَرُوا عَلَيْكُمْ لاَ يَرْقُبُواْ فِيكُمْ إِلاًّ وَلاَ ذِمَّةً يُرْضُونَكُم بِأَفْوَاهِهِمْ وَتَأْبَى قُلُوبُهُمْ وَأَكْثَرُهُمْ فَاسِقُونَ
Kayfa wain yathharoo AAalaykum la yarquboo feekum illan wala thimmatan yurdoonakum biafwahihim wataba quloobuhum waaktharuhum fasiqoona
How?! And if they prevail over you (plural) they have not regard in you a relationship nor honor. They please you with their mouths while their hearts refuse and the majority of them outside the path.
The Aya continues the same theme and explains why that particular group of polytheists do not deserve a treaty or oath. It cites that if they prevail then they are not going to have regard to honor or relationship and that they say something nice but deep inside hold very negative views.
The Aya presents two words that may need further discussion. ILLAN and it points to relationships and this can be a relationship built on blood or oath or whatever. So, they Aya says that they are ready to break with this important human bond.
The other word is THIMMA and it comes from the theme that if someone breaks that bond or does something then that person becomes worthy of blame and dishonor. So, the Aya says that they do not care if they do something that is considered dishonorable and this may be related to breaking the relationship mentioned earlier or any other act that is humanly agreed upon as being dishonorable. In this is a tacit Qur’anic acceptance of the concept of human agreed upon values of what is good and bad to do and that Muslims and non Muslims alike respect and praise the one who upholds it while dishonor the one who does not.
Kayfa: how/ how come?!
Wain: and if
Yathharoo: they overpower / they come on top/ they prevail
Note: the root is THa-H-R and it means Back (as opposed to stomach) in the concrete word. Conceptually form it can the meaning of To back/to support and also to externalize as opposed to internalize and to be on top since the back of the animal is the top of the animal and so on. YATHHAROO is an action that is being completed and is part of the conditional statement. It means: the coming on top is happening or will be happening by the subject (third person plural)
AAalaykum: above you (plural)/ on top of you (plural
Note: YATHHAROO ALAYKUM then takes the meaning of overpower you/ beat you
la yarquboo: they will not watch/ they do not watch/ they have no regard
Note: LA is for negation of the action that comes next. YARQUBOO is derived from the root R-Qaf-B and it means neck for the concrete. The abstract is used to mean surveillance because the neck is an organ of surveillance. It is also used to mean control because the neck is an organ when controlled, the whole body follows. In this context it takes the meaning of watching. YARQUBOO is an action that is happening or will be happening as a response to the conditional. It means: the action of watching or paying attention is happening by the subject (Third person plural)
Feekum: in you (plural)
Illan: relationship (blood or otherwise)
Note: the root is Hamza- L-L and it carries the meaning of speed and rapidity but it also carries the meaning of being related either through blood relation or through some sort of arrangement or oath and so on.
Thimmatan: dishonor/ blameworthiness/ honor
Note: the root is TH-M-M and it means dishonor or blameworthiness. In a sense it is the opposite of praiseworthy. It carries the meaning that such act if done or breached will make the perpetrator dishonorable and blameworthy. In this context, it means they do not care if they appeared dishonorable or blameworthy
Yurdoonakum: they make you (plural) lovingly accepting/ they please you
Note: the root is R-Dhad-Y and it means accepting lovingly. YURDOONAKUM is an action that is happening or will be happening. It means: the action of making the object (KUM= plural you ) lovingly accept is happening or will be happening by the subject (third person plural).
Biafwahihim: by their mouths/ with their mouths
Note: BI signifies an attachment or close linkage between what is before and what is after it. In a Verbal sentence it can mean attachment to the action or to the subject as it does the action. This attachment can then signify many things according to the verb and to the sentence and so on. AFWAHIHIM is derived from the root F-W-H and it means mouth.
Wataba: while refuse/ prevent/ reject
Note: the WA here is for saying while or in contrast and so on. TABA is derived from the root Hamza-B-Y and it means prevention, rejection and refusal. TABA is an action that is happening or will be happening. It means: the action of prevention or rejection or refusal of the object (not mentioned but point to pleasing the believers) is happening by the subject (third person plural)
Note: The root is Qaf-L-B and it means turning 180 degrees or upside down. The word is used for heart, because it is the organ that changes it’s moods often. Therefore QALB is our thoughts and emotions or what is inside us. QULOOBU are hearts and minds of or thoughts and emotions of. HUM means them.
Waaktharuhum: and most of them/ and the majority of them
Note: WA is a letter that links what is before with what is after. This link is through inclusion, either one is included in the other or they are all included in the bigger sentence or bigger picture. WA is often translated as an addition (and), but inclusion probably covers the meaning a little better. In this area the WAW is used to begin a new sentence. AKTHARUHUM is derived from the root K-TH-R and it means many or numerous in all the planes of thought. AKTHARAHUM means: the bigger number of them and that means the majority of them or most of them.
Note: FASIQOONA is derived from the root F-S-Qaf and it means in concrete when the seed is out of it’s pod or when the rat is out of her house or causing harm to the regular path of the people. So, it is used for someone leaving the path or someone harming the safety of it. This is then understood as when one is out of the right place for them. In the Qur’an, it is used to mean being outside of God’s way.
Salaam all and have a great day