This is 4:99
فَأُوْلَـئِكَ عَسَى اللّهُ أَن يَعْفُوَ عَنْهُمْ وَكَانَ اللّهُ عَفُوًّا غَفُورًا
Faolaika AAasa Allahu an yaAAfuwa AAanhum wakana Allahu AAafuwwan ghafooran
The Aya says:
Then those, perhaps that Allah will erase accountability away from them, and Allah happened to be, eraser of accountability, forgiving.
My personal note:
Here the Aya continues the theme. It points that those weak people with no means to make change will not be held accountable to their lack of action. The Aya ends up emphasizing that God does remove accountability for people of some of their poor actions as well as protectively cover them.
The difference between AAaFUW and GHUFRAN is in this way:
AAaFUW is making a situation that would generally be negative (as in a sin) for the person into a neutral state as if the act never happened.
GHUFRAN does not erase the action into non existence or neutrality, but provides the person protective cover from it. Ghufran can be in degrees. Sometimes, the person is still going to suffer from the effect of sin but to a lesser extent than should be. Or it can end up being much more positive than mere neutrality of AAaFUW.
The Aya says that God does both, depending on the situation and what God’s wisdom and Mercy and Justice determine as best.
Translation of the transliterated words.
Faolaika: then those
yaAAfuwa: He erases accountability/ He renders the sin null/ He makes unaccountable
Note: the root is Ain-F-W and it means erasing something through the effect of the wind. This is the concrete and in abstract it means erasing a fault from the record as in forgiving it or erasing something from one’s ownership as in giving it up to someone else. In this context, it points to not being accountable to what happened. YaAAFUWA is an action that is being completed or will be completed. It means: the action of erasing or making unaccounted the object (not mentioned but points to lack of action of the previous Aya) is happening or will be happening by the subject (third person singular pointing to Allah).
AAanhum: from them/ away from them
Note: this word takes the meaning of from, but at times takes the meaning of away from and so on. HUM means them.
Wakana: and happened to be
Note: WA is a letter that links what is before with what is after. This link is through inclusion, either one is included in the other or they are all included in the bigger sentence or bigger picture. WA often corresponds with “and/ addition” but the more encompassing meaning is in inclusion one in another or all in a bigger picture or sentence. KANA is derived from the root K-W-N and it means being. KANA is an action that is completed that is derived from the root. It means: the action of being happened by the subject (third personal singular pointing to Allah). This in turn means: He was or He happened to be.
AAafuwwan: eraser of accountability
Note: the root is Ain-F-W and it means erasing something through the effect of the wind. This is the concrete and in abstract it means erasing a fault from the record as in forgiving it or erasing something from one’s ownership as in giving it up to someone else. In this context, it points to not being accountable to what happened. AAaFUWWAN means one who erases accountability of sins of the others.
Ghafooran: forgiving/ provider of protective cover
Note: the root is GH-F-R and it means covering for protection. The concrete word is the helmet of the fighter. GHAFOORAN is the one that covers to protect. This, in turn means protection from committing the sin and protection from the consequences of sin, which also means forgiving
Salaam all and have a great day.