LuAAina allatheena kafaroo min banee israeela AAala lisani dawooda waAAeesa ibni maryama thalika bima AAasaw wakanoo yaAAtadoona
The aya says:
The ones who rejected amongst the children of Israel were distanced from (Allah’s) mercy on the tongue of David and Jesus son of Mary. That, by what they disobeyed and happened to transgress.
My personal note:
While all humans who reject God’s message or who reject God are distanced from His mercy, this Aya is addressing the children of Israel in particular. The potential reasons for this particular mention can be one of the following or more:
1- The context of Aya is that it comes after mentioning the messages that came to the children of Israel whether it is by Moses (pbuh) or Jesus (pbuh).
2- The fact that this family is tree is very important since it is full of prophets and is descended from Abraham makes a compelling argument to any family tree that, Allah’s mercy does not come from a lineage or a race but from being in Harmony with Allah and His commands. This message comes often in the Qur’an.
The other thing is that David is mentioned here in his function as a prophet of God. So, the Qur’an looks at David and Solomon as prophets and kings at the same time. This is probably different from the biblical view of those two where they are looked at as kings only.
Translation of the transliterated words:
LuAAina: were distanced from mercy/ expelled from mercy
Note: LuAAiNA is derived from the root L-Ain-N and it means distancing or expelling. It is used to mean curse in the form of distancing or expelling from nearness or mercy. The concrete word is scarecrow because it keeps away or at a distance the undesirable birds from the field. LuAAiNA is an action that is completed. It means that the action of expelling from mercy or distancing of the object (third person plural) happened by an undeclared subject.
Allatheena: those who
Kafaroo: rejected (Allah and His message)/ discarded
Note: the root is K-F-R and it means cover or bury in the ground, as in put the seed in the ground and cover it. This is then used conceptually for many purposes as in discarding and rejecting as well as burying. KAFARO is an action that is completed. It means: the action of rejection or discarding of the object (not declared, but understood from the context to point to God and/or the message) happened by the subject (third person plural).
Min: from/ of
Banee: children of
Note: the root is B-N-Y and it means building and it also mean son or child. The relationship between the two meanings is that the son is the product of building the family. Here, it is used to mean child or son. BANEE means children of.
AAala: on/ upon
Lisani: tongue of
Note: the root is L-S-N and it means tongue. This is then conceptually taken to mean speech or language or anything that relates to tongues as in speech or words and so on. LISANI means tongue of.
waAAeesa: and Jesus
Ibni: son of
Maryama: Mary/ Miriam
Bima: by what/ with what/ in what
Note: Bi denotes that what comes after is a tool and/or an object or an association with an action that was mentioned. If it is an object of the action then it makes it stronger. MA means what
AAasaw: they disobeyed/ resisted
Note: the root is Ain-Sad-W and it means wooden stick/wooden staff for the concrete. For the abstract it means disobedience and resistance because the Stick is unbending. AAaSAW is an action that is completed. It means: The action of disobeying or resisting happened by the subject (third person plural).
Wakanoo: and they happened to be/ and they were
Note: WA is a letter that links what is before with what is after. This link is through inclusion, either one is included in the other or they are all included in the bigger sentence or bigger picture. WA often corresponds with “and/ addition” but the more encompassing meaning is in inclusion one in another or all in a bigger picture or sentence. KANOO is derived from the root K-W-N and it means being. KANOO is an action that is completed that is derived from the root. It means: the action of being happened by the subject (third personal plural). This in turn means: they were or they happened to be
yaAAtadoona: transgressing/ overstepping boundaries
Note: the root is Ain-D-W and it means running or overstepping boundaries since the running is a form of overstepping a boundary. Conceptually, it is also used to point to animosity since animosity stems from overstepping boundaries or enemies overstep boundaries of each other. YaAATADOONA is an action that is being completed or will be completed. It means: the action of overstepping boundaries or transgressing is happening or will be happening by the subject (third person plural) with some emphasis.
Salaam all and have a great day.