The Aya says:
That is that your (singular) nurturing Lord was not and will not be destroying the towns by injustice while their people not paying attention.
My personal note:
This Aya is a reassurance to all humanity that Allah will hold us accountable to what knowledge He brings our way and not hold us accountable to what has not reached us.
The term Ghafil means not paying attention and in this sense, the not paying attention is not because of negligence on the part of the person but because of inability and other appropriate reasons to not pay attention.
However, once our attention was brought to the matter, then we become responsible to responding to it and that is what we are accountable for in front of God. May Allah help us always to respond to His messages in the most appropriate manner. Th Aya also brings something very important and that is that Allah considers it unjust to punish without sending some sort of message or warning. And that Allah's punishment is always just and never unjust. Muslim scholars will say that a person goes to Hell by Justice but he or she did not do what makes them deserving the mercy of Allah, while the one that goes to heaven deserved the mercy of Allah. May Allah encompass us in His Mercy.
Translation of the transliterated words:Thalika an: that
lam yakun: He was not/ He did not happen to be
Note: LAM is for negation of what comes after it. YAKUN is derived from the root K-W-N and it means being. LAM YAKUN is a denial of an action from happening in the past and the future. It means: the action of being did not happen and will not happen by the subject (third personal plural). This in turn means: He was not/ He did not happen to be and He will not happen to be.
Rabbuka: your (singular) nurturing lord
Note: RABBUKA is derived from the root R-B-B and it means nurturing and Lordship as two components of the meaning that can be present together or one at a time according to the context of the sentence. RABBU is nurturing Lord of. KA means singular you.
Muhlika: making perish/ destroying
Note: the root is H-L-K and it means dried and dead plant. This is the concrete and the abstract means death and perdition. MUHLIKA means making perish or destroying.
Alqura: the towns/ the villages
Note: the root is Qaf-R-Y and it means the piece of land that is undivided or the body of water which collects water from the valleys and where people congregate to drink and water their animals. This is the concrete and it can be conceptually extended to mean town or village since the town or village is located where the water is located and it is a collection of people in it. ALQARYATI means: the village or town in here. ALQURA is the plural of that nown.
Bithulmin: by injustice/ through injustice
Note: Bi suggests that what comes after it is either a tool of the action or an object of the action or any combination of the three. If bi serves as an object of the action that it serves as an emphasis of the action. THULMIN is derived from the root THA-L-M and it means darkness in the most concrete form. This word also takes the meaning of misplacing right from wrong and transgression or injustice since injustice is displacing right from wrong and a decision made in darkness. THULMIN means injustice of or transgression or displacement of right and wrong.
Waahluha: while it’s people/ while their people
Note: WA is a letter that links what is before with what is after. This link is through inclusion, either one is included in the other or they are all included in the bigger sentence or bigger picture. WA often corresponds with “and/ addition” but the more encompassing meaning is in inclusion one in another or all in a bigger picture or sentence. AHLUHA is derived from the root Hamza-H-L and one concrete meaning of the word is the fat that surrounds the back of the animal. It is used conceptually to mean family or any of the people that are closely associated with the entity being discussed. This could be because they are like the fat as in they engulf and protect and so forth and gain protection at the same time. AHLU means people of or family of. HA means her or them and it points to the towns or villages
Ghafiloona: not paying attention
Note: GHAFIL is derived from the root is GH-F-L and it means not paying attention. GHAFIL is the one who is not paying attention