Qul innama harrama rabbiya alfawahisha ma thahara minha wama batana waalithma waalbaghya bighayri alhaqqi waan tushrikoo biAllahi ma lam yunazzil bihi sultanan waan taqooloo AAala Allahi ma la taAAlamoona
The Aya says:
Say (O Muhammad): My nurturing Lord did not forbid except the indecency what is apparent amongst them and what is hidden and the sin and the aggression without right, and that you make partners to Allah what He did not send evidence/license/ proof of, and that you claim upon Allah in what you have no knowledge of.
My personal note:
The Aya brings about the main categories of entities that are forbidden. FAWAHISH is a term that covers any act that is outside the bounds of decency as generally agreed by societies but also indicated in the books of Allah. One can say that indecencies can cover many forms of sin that are related to general behaviour including in appropriate sexual behavior. The second one is ITHM and it covers any act that is considered injustice to oneself and to God and to others. This act can cover any form of disobeying God whether by not doing what He ordered or doing what He prohibited and the thid sin is aggression without a right. This rules the relationship with other human beings. Aggression without a right is limiting in that it also means that even if you have a “right”, it is limited to the extent of the crime committed by the other and when or if you overstep that limit then you have committed an “aggression without right”.
So, the first three categories judge our general behaviours as human beings. The last two are even more important because they relate to our relationship with God. The first one is that we should be monotheists in our belief and in our conduct. The second is to know the limit of what we can talk about or not talk about related to God. It basically prohibits us from talking about God without knowledge in any form.
Translation of the transliterated words:
Note: QUL is derived from the root Qaf-W-L and it means saying in any way possible. QUL is an order addressed to a singular. It means: Say.
innama Harrama: He did nmot make forbidden except/ forbidden to violate
Note: INNAMA is to designate that only what follows the action is included and everything else is excluded. HARRAMA the root is Ha-R-M and it means “forbidding and forbidden to violate”. HARRAMA is an action that is completed. It means: the action of making the object (MAN= who) forbidden happened by the subject (third person singular).
rabbiya: my nurturing lord
Note: the root is R-B-B and it means nurturing and Lordship as two components of the meaning that can be present together or one at a time according to the context of the sentence. RABBI is nurturing Lord of. ya means mine.
Alfawahisha: abominations/ the ugly words or deeds/ the indecencies
Note: the root is F-Ha-SH and it means: the ugly word or deed or any word or deed that has exceeded the border of decency and appropriateness. The term is often used related to sexual acts, but it is not limited to it. FAWAHISHA are the ugly words or deeds including sexually or nudity/indecent exposure.
Thahara: became apparent/ was apparent
Note: the root is THa-H-R and it means Back (as opposed to stomach) in the concrete word. Conceptually form it can the meaning of To back/to support and also to externalize as opposed to internalize and to be on top since the back of the animal is the top of the animal and so on. THAHARA is an action that is completed. It means: the action of becoming apparent happened by the subject (Minha= of them).
Minha: of them
Wama: and what
Batana: was hidden/ became hidden
Note: the root is B-TTA-N and it means inside or stomach. Conceptually it takes the meaning according to the plane of thought and carries the meaning of the real stomach or anything inside including secrets and so forth. BATANA is an action that is completed. It means: the action of being hidden or internalized happened by the subject (third person plural)
Waalithma: and the injustice/ and the sin/ and what is wrong
Note: WA is a letter that links what is before with what is after. This link is through inclusion, either one is included in the other or they are all included in the bigger sentence or bigger picture. WA often corresponds with “and/ addition” but the more encompassing meaning. ALITHMA is derived from the root Hamza-TH-M and it means breaking of rule or rules of justice, morality and ethics. This means error or fault with a tinge of knowing it. ALITHM is the breaking of the rule of justice and morality while aware of it. It fits closely with sin when knowing that it is sin. It is also injustice.
Waalbaghya: and/including the aggression/ and the transgression
Note: WA is a letter that links what is before with what is after. This link is through inclusion, either one is included in the other or they are all included in the bigger sentence or bigger picture. WA often corresponds with “and/ addition” but the more encompassing meaning. ALBAGHYA is derived from the root B-GHain-Y or B-ghain-w and it means the young unripe fruit and the young animal. This is some of the concrete meaning. It does attain the meaning of something desirable or desire as well as something bad as in an aggression or transgression. Both may share that youth is desirable and youth is associated with immaturity and foolish actions. ALBAGHYA in this context means their transgression or their foolish immature actions.
Bighayri: by other than/ without
Alhaqqi: the binding truth/ the binding right
Note: ALHAQQI is derived from the root Ha-Qaf-Qaf and it means binding right where right means correct as well s what is due to one person (rights and obligations). ALHAQQ is binding right or binding truth or just right as the context suggests here.
Waan: and that
Tushrikoo: and to make partners
Note: TUSHRIKOO is derived from the root SH-R-K and it means partner or partnership and with this partnership is a measure of equality or being on par. ALLA TUSHRIKOO is an order or demand addressed to a group not to make partners or associations
biAllahi: by Allah/ in Allah/ to ALLAH
Note: Bi suggests that what comes after it is either a tool of the action or an object of the action or any combination. If bi serves as an object of the action that it serves as an emphasis of the action. ALLAH is Allah.
lam yunazzil: He did not bring down from above/ make descend
Note: LAM is for negation of the action that is following. YUNAZZIL
Is derived from the root N-Z-L and it carries the meaning of arrival to stay and descent. One concrete meaning is the descent of the person from his or her horse or camel as they arrive at the place where they plan to stay. YUNAZZIL is an action that is being completed or will be completed. It means: the action of making the object (bihi= in him) arrive or making it descend is happening or will be happening by the subject(third person singular pointing to Allah).
Bihi: in him and it points to evidence/ by him/ it
Note: Bi suggests that what comes after it is either a tool of the action or an object of the action or any combination. If bi serves as an object of the action that it serves as an emphasis of the action. HI means him and it points to evidence.
Sultanan: power of proof/ proof/ license
Note: the root is S-L-TTA and it means power that can overcome obstacles. As a concept it can be extended to the power that is physical, mental, spiritual and power of argument and proof. SULTANAN can be any of the previous concepts. In this context, it is either a license to make partners or a power of proof that there are partners.
Waan: and that
Taqooloo: you (plural) say/ claim
Note: TAQOOLOO is derived from the root Qaf-W-L and it means saying in any way possible. TAQOOLOO is a an action that is being completed or will be completed. It means: you (plural) say or claim in this context.
La taAAlamoona: you (plural) do not know/ you have no knowledge of facts about.
Note: LA is for negation of the action that is coming up. TaAALAMOON is derived from the root Ain-L-M and it means knowing/knowledge or knowledge of facts. TaAALAMOON is an action that is being completed or will be completed. It means: the action of knowing the object (not specified but probably points to the piece of information) for fact is happening or will be happening by the subject (second person plural). MA LA TaAALAMOONA together means: what you (plural) do not know or what you have no knowledge of facts about.
Salaam all and have a great day