Indeed those who took the calf (to worship) will reach them manifest displeasure from their nurturing Lord and humiliation in this life and as such we pay back the ones who make up falsehood.
The Aya is a reminder that when we concoct and make up things then we are going to be punished in this life and will be humiliated. May Allah protect us from making up false claims concerning Allah and His message.
Inna allatheena: those who/ indeed those who
Ittakhathoo: took/ took for themselves
Note: the root is Hamza-KH-TH and it means to take. ITTAKHATHOO is an action that is completed. It means: the action of taking the object (ALAAiJLA= the calf) happened by the subject (third person plural).
alAAijla: the baby cow/ the calf
Note: the root is Ain-J-L and it means speed and to be in a hurry. It is conceptually used for wheel as a source of speed. ALAAiJL means the baby cow and that is probably because it is born in a hurry and it hurries to stand very fast (and GOD knows best).
Sayanaluhum: will reach them/ will be reached
Note: the root is N-W-L and it means delivery of something or reaching of an entity to another. SAYANALUHUM is an action that will be completed. It means: the action of reaching the object (HUM= them) will be happening by the subject (GHADABUN-= anger/ manifest displeasure).
Ghadabun: manifest displeasure/ anger
Note: GHADABUN is derived from the root Ghain-Dhad-B and it means in one of the concrete meanings red or turning red. So, conceptually, it carries the meaning of revealing anger or displeasure. GHADABUN means revealed anger/ displeasure.
rabbihim: Their nurturing lord
Note: RABBIHIM is derived from the root R-B-B and it means nurturing and Lordship as two components of the meaning that can be present together or one at a time according to the context of the sentence. RABBI is nurturing Lord of. HIM means them.
Wathillatun: and humiliation
Note: WA is a letter that links what is before with what is after. This link is through inclusion, either one is included in the other or they are all included in the bigger sentence or bigger picture. WA often corresponds with “and/ addition” but the more encompassing meaning is in inclusion one in another or all in a bigger picture or sentence. THILLATUN is derived from the root TH-L-L and it means pliant to pressure. This takes the meaning of weakness and humiliation, but at times, it takes the meaning of humility and softness. The plane of thought decides the use of the word. THILLATUN in this context means humiliation.
alhayati : the life
Note: the root is Ha-Y-W and it means life or movement. The two are related since movement is a sign of life to the Arabs. Conceptually, the term can take other meanings including greetings and shyness as well according to the context. The relationship is that Arabs before Islam used to greet each other by wishing a good and long life. In here, it takes the meaning of greetings. ALHAYATI means the life.
Alddunya: the near/ the nearer/ this life
Note: the root is D-N-W and it means nearness or nearing. ALDUNYA means the near. In this case, it points to this life that we are living in as the near. ALDDUNYA is also this life that we are living. ALHAYATI ALDDUNYA means this life.
Wakathalika: and as such
Najzee: We compensate/ We pay back
Note: the root is J-Z-Y and it means compensation for action that can be good or bad. NAJZEE is an action that is happening or will happen in the future. It means: the action of paying back is happening or going to happen to the object (ALMUJRIMEEN= the criminals) by the subject (first person plural)
Almuftareena: the concoctors/ the makers of falsehood
Note: the root is F-R-W and it means the furr or the animal or the skin that is normally covered with hair. This word is used when people are concocting things and making things up that are not true. It could be related to the action of cutting the skin apart or making things up as in making a dress out of the skin and so forth. ALMUFTAREEN are the ones that make up falsehoods.
Salaam all and have a great day.