Friday, June 20, 2008

4:34

Salaam all,

This is 4:34
الرِّجَالُ قَوَّامُونَ عَلَى النِّسَاء بِمَا فَضَّلَ اللّهُ بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ وَبِمَا أَنفَقُواْ مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ فَالصَّالِحَاتُ قَانِتَاتٌ حَافِظَاتٌ لِّلْغَيْبِ بِمَا حَفِظَ اللّهُ وَاللاَّتِي تَخَافُونَ نُشُوزَهُنَّ فَعِظُوهُنَّ وَاهْجُرُوهُنَّ فِي الْمَضَاجِعِ وَاضْرِبُوهُنَّ فَإِنْ أَطَعْنَكُمْ فَلاَ تَبْغُواْ عَلَيْهِنَّ سَبِيلاً إِنَّ اللّهَ كَانَ عَلِيًّا كَبِيرًا
Alrrijalu qawwamoona AAala alnnisai bima faddala Allahu baAAdahum AAala baAAdin wabima anfaqoo min amwalihim faalssalihatu qanitatun hafithatun lilghaybi bima hafitha Allahu waallatee takhafoona nushoozahunna faAAithoohunna waohjuroohunna fee almadajiAAi waidriboohunna fain ataAAnakum fala tabghoo AAalayhinna sabeelan inna Allaha kana AAaliyyan kabeeran

The Aya says:
The men, standing upright over the women by what Allah bestowed to some of them over some and by what they spent of their money. Therefore, the righteous women (are) dedicated, preservers of the private, by what Allah preserved. And as for those women from whom you (plural) fear disdain/rebellion, then advise them, including leave them in the beds, and nudge/lightly hit them. So, if they willingly complied, then do not aggress on them a way. Indeed, Allah happened to be most high, big.

My personal note:

This Aya contains lots of important statements and it has entered so many discussions from a feminist perspective. It is difficult to translate it without being influenced by some preconceived notions, whether from men or women. There are statements I needed to touch:

The men standing upright over the women: This one carries with it two meanings. One is that women are the base that supports the men to stand. Two is that men should assume taking care of the women. The two meanings are not mutually exclusive.

Allah bestowed to some of them over some: This carries within it that Allah gave of his bounty to some people, men and women, more than he gave to others and therefore made our responsibilities towards each other dependant on what bounties of God were given to us. The part that follows about the spending of the money is understood that men are responsible to financially support their women. It also carries within it’s meaning that while some of us may have a bounty of something, others will have a bounty of another and therefore we all end up needing each other.

The Aya addresses issues related to women and that is why it does not mention the qualities of a good man. This is part of being in the Sura/ chapter that is designated to matters of women mainly. It does give some of the qualities of the righteous women, mainly dedication and keeper of privacy. Keeper of privacy touches on the very important issue of protection of privacy within the Islamic system. It is considered a right that should not be violated at all times.

The last issue is the issue of the word IDRIBOOHUNNA, which I translated as hit lightly or nudge. It is because of this, that this Aya will always be discussed by different people. Some attack Islam through it and others attacking each alternative understanding of it. The reason I chose hit lightly/nudge is because the way I understood the term as the use of the limb to achieve an aim. In this case, one cannot use the limb to hit harshly and achieve the aim, but a light hit or a nudge can do it. One thing for sure is that Muslims scholars are in agreement that this is not an order that should be obeyed, but a choice that a person may choose sparingly and rarely. They cite hadeeths from the prophet (pbuh) never hitting a wife and in which he discouraged hitting. So, the way the scholars understood this Aya is that it is a permission to lightly hit/nudge, while the preferred thing is not to hit at all. They did consider it illegal to hit a face of any individual.

There is a translation by Laleh Bakhtiar in which she translated Idriboohunna as move away or cease. I have to disagree within my understanding of the Arabic. The root Dhad-R-B does carry those meanings, only when the word that is derived from the root is followed by another word AAan. Since that did not occur in this sentence, then I cannot understand this Aya as meaning move away. God however knows best.

Translation of the transliterated words:

Alrrijalu: the men
ALRIJAL is derived from the root is R-J-L and it means legs. The word also means men depending on the situation. One possible link could be because when men and women are in the caravan and the ability to ride is limited, then the men will be on their legs, while the women will be riding the camels or so forth. ALRIJAL means: the men.
Qawwamoona: standing upright
Note: the root is Qaf-W-M and it means standing upright. QAWWAMOONA are people who are standing upright or standing upright very well. This conceptually can lead to several meanings that may apply. One is standing very well and secure and safe. Another is taking responsibility or deserving of taking responsibility since the one standing upright is the one who is more likely to take responsibility.
AAala: on
Alnnisai: the women
Note: the word means the women. It has two potential roots that may be related to it. The first N-S-Y and it is the one used for women. This same root is used for the sciatic nerve as a concrete word and for forgetting. The relation between the different meanings is only in an indirect manner. Another root is N-S-Hamza and it means putting things behind in time or space of delaying things. Concrete words are the women that have a delay in the menses because of possibility of pregnancy. The Statement Alrijal qawwamoona alaa alnisai carries the potential two meanings of men stand upright because of women as their base and men standing upright to take care of women’s needs. Both meanings apply.
Bima: By what
Note: Bi denotes that what comes after is a tool and/or an object or an association with an action that was mentioned. If it is an object of the action then it makes it stronger. MA means what
Faddala: He bestowed of bounty/ blessing/ Ample goodness
Note: the root is F-Dhad-L and it means overflowing of good, or the remaining of the good thing after it has been utilized. It indicates many meanings and one of them is the bounty of good, the presence of more than needed of it and so both. FADDALA is an action that is derived from the root and that is completed. It means the action of presence of bounty or overflowing of good was made to happen by the subject (first person singular pointing to Allah, next). It was made to happen by the subject to the object which is the next word (baAAdahum= some of them).
Allahu: Allah
baAAdahum: some of them
Note: the root is B-Ain-Dhad and it means part of the whole. BaAADA means part of or some of. HUM means them.
AAala: on/ over/ upon
baAAdin: some
Note: the root is B-Ain-Dhad and it means part of the whole and it takes the conceptual meaning of some of the whole. BaAADIN means: Some
Wabima: and by what
Anfaqoo: they spent
Note: the root is N-F-Qaf and it means tunnel in the concrete sense. This is then used to mean anything that is tunneled from one place to another as in hiding your thoughts or presenting different than the ones that you hold. Another is tunneling you money to another destination as in giving some of your money to charity or so forth. Here, it is used for the tunneling of the money or the spending it for charity. ANFAQOO is an action that is derived from the root and that is completed. It means the action of making tunnelling or spending happened by the subject (third person plural).
Min: from
Amwalihim: their money/ belongings
Note: the root is M-W-L and it means what a person owns of gold and silver. This is used to mean anything owned or just money. AMWALI means moneys of. HIM means them.
Faalssalihatu: so the righteous women/beneficial/ good
Note: Fa means then or therefore or so. ALSSALIHATU is derived from the root Sad-L-Ha and it means becoming helpful or useful in a good direction. This means mainly: becoming one of benefit as in benefiting oneself and others. Included in this meaning is becoming fixed after having been broken. ALSSALIHATU then are the women of goodness/ benefit and that would be the definition of the righteous.
Qanitatun: dedicated
Note: the root is Qaf-N-T and it means dedication. The meaning can conceptually be used for being silent in front of another, acceptance of the lordship of the one above him/her, worship, and standing as well. What puts all the meanings together best is dedication as the bigger concept. QANITATUN means dedicated with a hint of acceptance of authority over them.
Hafithatun: preserving
Note: the root is Ha-F-THa and it means preservation and protection, and within that concept, also maintenance and upkeep. HAFITHATUN means preserving/ upkeeping.
Lilghaybi: to the unperceived/ the private.
Not: Li means to. ALGHAYBI is derived from the root GH-Y-B and it means unperceived in general. One concrete word is the word for thick forest where many things are hidden and unperceived as opposed to the open desert that the Arabs were familiar with. This is then conceptually taken to any thing that disappears or becomes as if it disappeared in the forest. ALGHAYBI here means the unperceived. In this context, it points to the private.
Bima: by what
Note: Bi denotes that what comes after is a tool and/or an object or an association with an action that was mentioned. If it is an object of the action then it makes it stronger. MA means what
Hafitha: He preserved/ preserved
Note: the root is Ha-F-THa and it means preservation and protection, and within that concept, also maintenance and upkeep. HAFITHA is an action that is completed. It means: the action of preserving of the object (undeclared) happened by the subject (Allah= coming up).
Allahu: Allah.
Waallatee: and those women who
Takhafoona: you (plural) fear
Note: the root is KH-W-F and it means fear or scare. TAKHAFTOONA is an action that is being completed or will be completed. It means: the action of fear is happening or will be happening by the subject (second person plural).
Nushoozahunna: their rebellion/ their disdain/ arrogance
Note: the root is N-SH-Z and it means elevated that it becomes seen and apparent and noticeable. Conceptually, it is used for anything that is elevated or for when a person elevates themselves above others, as in rebellion or arrogance or disdaining others. NUSHUZAHUNNA means their rebellion or disdain for husbands or arrogance.
faAAithoohunna: then advise them
Note: Fa means then or therefore or so. AAiTHOOHUNNA is derived from the root W-Ain-THA and it means advice or advising. AAITHOO is an order or a request addressed to a group of people. It means: advise the object (HUNNA=plural femimine).
Waohjuroohunna: and abandon them/ including abandon them
Note: WA is a letter that links what is before with what is after. This link is through inclusion, either one is included in the other or they are all included in the bigger sentence or bigger picture. WA often corresponds with “and/ addition” but the more encompassing meaning is in inclusion one in another or all in a bigger picture or sentence. OHJURUHUNNA is derived from the root H-J-R and it means leaving or abandoning someone or something or some place and so forth. OHJUROOHUNNA is an order or a request addressed to a group of people. It means leave them (plural feminine) or abandon them.
Fee: in
almadajiAAi: the beds/ the places of lying down
Note: the root is Dhad-J-Ain and it means lying down either to sleep or rest or for other functions as in to have sex. ALMADAJiAAi are the places of lying down, such as the beds. In here, the context is pointing to not having sex with them.
waidriboohunna: and hit them lightly/ nudge them
Note: WA is a letter that links what is before with what is after. This Note: WA is a letter that links what is before with what is after. This link is through inclusion, either one is included in the other or they are all included in the bigger sentence or bigger picture. WA often corresponds with “and/ addition” but the more encompassing meaning is in inclusion one in another or all in a bigger picture or sentence. IDRIBOOHUNNA is derived from the root Dhad-R-B and it means hitting of the limbs to serve a function. The word carries mainly three components to the meaning, the hitting of the limbs, a measure and a purpose. This then has many meanings including hitting, or traveling or working with the limbs and so on and so forth. In the context here, it carries the use of the limb to encourage change of attitude and that can be through either a light hit or a nudge. IDRIBOOHUNNA is a request to a group of people. It means: nudge/lightly hit them.
Fain: so if
ataAAnakum: they obeyed you/ they complied willingly with you (plural)
Note: the root is Ta-W-ain and it means willingly comply. ATaAANA is an action that is completed and that is derived from the root. It means: the action of making oneself willingly comply happened by the subject (third person plural feminine) to the object (KUM= plural you).
Fala: then not
Tabghoo: You (plural) seek/ you aggress
Note: the root is B-GH-Y and it means the young unripe fruit and the young animal. This is some of the concrete meaning. It does attain the meaning of something to aspire to, as well as something bad or immature. Both may share that youth aspires to mature, and youth is associated with immaturity and foolish actions. TABGHOO is an action that is being completed or will be completed. It means the action of seeking/ wanting or aggressing is happening or will be happening by the subject (second person plural).
AAalayhinna: on them (feminine)
Sabeelan: a path
Note: the root is S-B-L and it means and it means flowing water from the falling rain from the sky to the flowing water in the river and so forth. This is the concrete and the other uses are related as in path, which allows the flow, to soft flowing hair and so forth. SABEELAN is the flowing water or the path. It takes the meaning of path or even the trip on the path.
Inna: indeed
Allaha: Allah
Kana: happened to be
Note: the root is K-W-N and it means being. KANA is an action that is completed that is derived from the root. It means: the action of being happened by the subject (third personal singular). This in turn means: He was or He happened to be
AAaliyyan: most high/ above all
Note: the root is Ain-L-Y and it means on or above or over. AAaLIYYAN is an entity that is above all/ high and so on.
Kabeeran: Big
Note: the root is K-B-R and it means big in quality or quantity or any other feature that denotes bigness. KABEERAN means big in all the concepts of bigness.

Salaam all and have a great day.

Hussein

7 comments:

theKman said...

Have you read the detailed analysis at www.Quran434.com ?

hussein said...

yes

hussein

theKman said...

And what did you think?

hussein said...

I find serious flows in the argument and this is not the place to discuss it.

theKman said...

Hi Hussein,
I am the author, as I'm sure you guessed. It would be very beneficial for me if you emailed me about the "serious flaws". I value your input. The email address can be found on the site. Thanks.

hussein said...

In Sha Allah I will when I have time to do it. Salaam

Hussein

darkness2noor said...

hussein i need to talk with you