this is 4:105
إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ لِتَحْكُمَ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ بِمَا أَرَاكَ اللّهُ وَلاَ تَكُن لِّلْخَآئِنِينَ خَصِيمًا
Inna anzalna ilayka alkitaba bialhaqqi litahkuma bayna alnnasi bima araka Allahu wala takun lilkhaineena khaseeman
The Aya says:
Indeed, We have descended to you (singular) the book, by the binding truth, so that you (singular) will steer between the people by what Allah made you see. And do not be, to the misleading ones, partisan.
My personal note:
The aya is addressing a second person singular. This means that it addressed clearly the person who received it, the prophet Muhammad (pbuh). It was a direct message to him, but it is also a direct message to every single person who takes the Qur’an seriously.
I translated the word “Litahkuma bayna Annasa”as to “steer between the people” instead of the more usual “To rule or judge between the people”. The reason is that steering is the more encompassing meaning and with more range. It encompasses judging and ruling for those who have the authority to judge, but it also encompasses our conduct of life and how we live it between people for those who are not in that position of authority. The word applies to both because the Aya talks to each one of us singularly to apply it within our capacities and within what we have learnt from the book of God.
The last statement in this Aya is also very interesting “Do not be partisan to the misleading ones”. The word KHAINEENA is often translated as traitors and that is correct, but it’s more encompassing meaning is “misleading” and this includes treason but other forms of misleading others as well. The term “do not be partisan” can be understood in two ways and both are not mutually exclusive. It can mean do not take their side and it also can mean not to take the opposite side. This is important for anyone in the position to judge, because they only rule for the truth and not for one person or another.
The reason that the misleading people were mentioned is that because they mix truth and untruth together or start with truth to arrive at an untruth. Therefore dealing with them will require extreme vigilance so that the person will not reject the truth even when it comes from them, but also not to accept their untruth. The famous statement attributes to Ali ® where he said: “A word of truth intended to support untruth.”
Translation of the transliterated words:
Inna: indeed WE
Anzalna: brought down/ made come/ descend from high
Note: the root is N-Z-L and it carries the meaning of arrival to stay and descent. One concrete meaning is the descent of the person from his or her horse or camel as they arrive at the place where they plan to stay. ANZALNA is an action that is completed. It means: the action of making arrive or making descend happened by the subject (first person plural).
Ilayka: to you (singular pointing to Muhammad pbuh)
Alkitaba: the book/ the collection of knowledge
Note: the root K-T-B and it means putting things together as in grouping the herd together or closing the lips or writing (the most common use), because in writing, one puts the letters and the ideas together. ALKITABA means, the process of writing or the book or anything related to it from the ideas to the ink and paper to the place where all is put together. In a sense, it points to the collection of knowledge and information that are communicated.
Bialhaqqi: by the binding truth/ with the binding truth
Note: Bi denotes that what comes after is a tool and/or an object or an association with an action that was mentioned. If it is an object of the action then it makes it stronger. ALHAQQI is derived from the root Ha-Qaf-Qaf and it means binding right where right means correct as well s what is due to one person (rights and obligations). ALHAQQI is the binding right or binding truth.
Litahkuma: in order that you (singular) rule/ judge/ steer
Note: li means to and in this context, it takes the meaning of in order to. TAHKUMA is derived from the root Ha-K-M and it means the steer that steers the animal. This word is used for ruling and judging as well as other meanings that contain steering as the concept. TAHKUMA is an action that is being completed or will be completed. It means: the action of steering including judging, ruling and others is happening or will be happening by the subject (second person singular pointing to the prophet).
Alnnasi: the people/ society
Note: ALNNAS is derived from the root Hamza-N-S and it means socializing. ALNNAS are the society/the people.
Bima: by what/ with what
Note: Bi denotes that what comes after is a tool and/or an object or an association with an action that was mentioned. If it is an object of the action then it makes it stronger. MA means what
Araka: He showed you (singular)/ made you see
Note: the root R-Hamza-Y and it means viewing or seeing. ARAKA is an action that is completed. It means: the action of making the object (KA= singular you pointing to the prophet) see happened by the subject (third person singular pointing to Allah, coming up).
Wala: and not
Takun: you (singular) happen to be
Note: the root is K-W-N and it means being. TAKUN is an action that is being completed or will be completed that is derived from the root. It means: the action of being is happening or will be happening by the subject (second person singular pointing to the prophet Muhammad pbuh).
Lilkhaineena: to the misleading ones/ to the traitors
Note: li means to. ILKHAINEENA is derived from the root KH-W-N and it means misleading or treason. Conceptually treason is encompassed in misleading, as in misleading the person to trust someone who is not worthy of trust. ILKHAINEENA are the misleading people or the traitors. I chose misleading people because it encompasses the traitors within it.
Khaseeman: partisan/ disputer
Note: The root is KH-Sad-M and it means disputing over an entity. This either can be a dispute over an issue or idea or a person and the term takes the meaning of people on opposite ends of a dispute and so forth. KHASEEMAN means disputer and in this context, it takes the meaning of either being on the side of the person or on the opposite side.
Salaam all and have a great day.