this is 4:101
وَإِذَا ضَرَبْتُمْ فِي الأَرْضِ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَن تَقْصُرُواْ مِنَ الصَّلاَةِ إِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَن يَفْتِنَكُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ إِنَّ الْكَافِرِينَ كَانُواْ لَكُمْ عَدُوًّا مُّبِينًا
Waitha darabtum fee alardi falaysa AAalaykum junahun an taqsuroo mina alssalati in khiftum an yaftinakumu allatheena kafaroo inna alkafireena kanoo lakum AAaduwwan mubeenan
The Aya says:
And when you hit in the land, then there is not a problem upon you (plural) that you shorten of the ritual prayer if you feared that those who rejected (Allah and his message) cause hardship to you (plural). Indeed, the rejecters happened to be self evident enemies to you (plural).
My personal note:
This aya points to a rule of shortening the prayer in case people were travelling and feared fight or any form of harassment from their enemies. The shortening can be in the number of repeated movements, but also in the period spent during prayer.
Translation of the transliterated words:
Waitha: and if/ when
Darabtum: you (plural) hit with measure and purpose/ fought with measure and purpose/ moved
Note: the root is Dhad-R-B and it means hitting of the limbs to serve a function. The word carries mainly three components to the meaning, the hitting of the limbs, a measure and a purpose. This then has many meanings including hitting, or traveling or working with the limbs and so on and so forth. In this context, it is open to a wide range of understanding including travelling for fighting or otherwise. DARABTUM is an action that is completed. It means: the action of hitting of the limbs happened by the subject (second person plural).
Alardi: the land/ the earth
Note: the root is Hamza-R-Dhad and it means land or earth. AlARDI is the land or the earth.
Falaysa: then not
AAalaykum: upon you (plural)
Junahun: tilt to error/ problem
Note: the root is J-N-Ha and it means wing or side in the concrete. The Conceptual meaning is related and points to a tilt one way or another. In this context, it points to a tilt to error or sin or wrong. JUNAHUN means a tilt to the wrong side.
Taqsuroo: you (plural) shorten
Note: the root is Qaf-Sad-R and it means short in stature. Conceptually, it is used to any form of limit whether in height or other features. The word QASR means a well fortified house or castle or palace because it has limited access to it against invaders and so on. TAQSUROO is an action that is being completed or will be completed. It means: the action of making short the object (Alsalat= the prayer) is happening or will be happening by the subject (second person plural).
Mina: of /from
Alssalati: the prayer/ the ritual prayer.
Note: the root is Sad-L-Y and it means two main things in concrete. One is the lower back area and this one is used for one who is racing towards a goal and the head is close to the lower back of the one who is ahead. It is also used in concrete to mean heat and warmth and fire. The word is used for prayer as well. In this context, ALSSALATA is the ritual prayer.
Khiftum: you (plural) feared
Note: the root is KH-W-F and it means fear or scare. KHIFTUM is an action that is completed. It means: the action of fear happened by the subject (second person plural).
Yaftinakumu: they test you (plural)/ cause you hardship/ fighting
Note: the root is F-T-N and it means in concrete form, the melting of Gold or silver in order to know the pure from the impure or the true from the fake. Therefore, in abstract, the word suggests an extreme test with hardship in it, or a burn with fire or even taking someone’s eyes with the glitter of the false Gold and silver. Here, it means the severe test that has hardship in it. YAFTINA is an action that is being completed or will be completed. It means: the action of sever testing or causing hardship including fighting on the object (KUMU=plural you) is happening or will be happening by the subject (third person plural)
Allatheena: those who
Kafaroo: rejected (Allah and His message)/ discarded
Note: the root is K-F-R and it means cover or bury in the ground, as in put the seed in the ground and cover it. This is then used conceptually for many purposes as in discarding and rejecting as well as burying. KAFARO is an action that is completed. It means: the action of rejection or discarding of the object (not declared, but understood from the context to point to God and/or the message) happened by the subject (third person plural).
Alkafireena: the rejecters/ the discarders of truth
Kafaroo: rejected (Allah and His message)/ discarded
Note: the root is K-F-R and it means cover or bury in the ground, as in put the seed in the ground and cover it. This is then used conceptually for many purposes as in discarding and rejecting as well as burying. ALKAFIREENA are the ones who reject the truth or discard it.
Kanoo: happened to be
Note: the root is K-W-N and it means being. KANOO is an action that is completed that is derived from the root. It means: the action of being happened by the subject (third personal plural). This in turn means: they were or they happened to be
Lakum: to you (plural)
Note: the root is Ain-D-W and it means running or overstepping boundaries since the running is a form of overstepping a boundary. Conceptually, it is also used to point to animosity since animosity stems from overstepping boundaries or enemies overstep boundaries of each other. AAaDUWWAN means enemy in this context.
Mubeenan: clear/ self evident/ clarifying
Note: the root is B-Y-N and it means in concrete between. The action of the verb is betweening. This betweening can mean clarifying because one can know better the difference between two things. It also can mean distancing because the betweening makes things become apart. MUBEEN is the one that makes between in a conceptual sense. In this context, it points to being clear and self evident.
Salaam all and have a great day.