This is 4:160
فَبِظُلْمٍ مِّنَ الَّذِينَ هَادُواْ حَرَّمْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ طَيِّبَاتٍ أُحِلَّتْ لَهُمْ وَبِصَدِّهِمْ عَن سَبِيلِ اللّهِ كَثِيرًا
Fabithulmin mina allatheena hadoo harramna AAalayhim tayyibatin ohillat lahum wabisaddihim AAan sabeeli Allahi katheeran
The Aya says:
So, by misplacement of right and wrong done by those who were Jewish, We made forbidden upon them good things that were permitted to them, and by their blocking Allah’s path often.
My personal note:
I translated the word THULM into misplacement of right and wrong. This is the wider range of meaning of the word and is generally wider than the usual translation of injustice or transgression. I also chose it because it actually answers some of the questions of this Aya.
The aya talks about things that were originally permitted for the Jews, but by their misplacement of right and wrong, it became forbidden. This happens in two ways:
1- A punishment for transgression and injustice and those are part of the meaning of the word THULM.
2- A person makes things forbidden on himself or herself by emphasizing some teachings and neglecting others and therefore he/she makes the practice of the religion harder. This is part of the consequence of misplacing right and wrong.
The Qur’an alludes to both examples to explain why or how the Jewish religious practice became harder and more demanding.
However, the Aya has an important message to the Muslims. They too can fall into the same error of making their religion too limited or them declaring things as forbidden when they are allowed. There are examples of this happening to some Muslims. Therefore this should be taken as a word of caution to any Muslim who declares things forbidden without strong evidence from the Qur’an and Sunna.
The aya points to some general Islamic understanding that things that are expressly forbidden (declared Haram) in the Qur'an and Sunna are then considered as clearly causing more harm than good. Things that are expressly enjoined (declared HALAL) are thing that cause more good than harm. The things that are not declared this or that are then generally neutral. They can move to one end or the other depending on the circumstance and particular situation.
Translation of the transliterated words:
Fabithulmin: so by injustice/ by transgression/ misplacement of right and wrong
Note: FA means then or therefore or so. Bi denotes that what comes after is a tool and/or an object or an association with an action that was mentioned. If it is an object of the action then it makes it stronger. THULMIN is derived from the root THA-L-M and it means darkness in the most concrete form. This word also takes the meaning of misplacing right from wrong and transgression or injustice since injustice is displacing right from wrong and a decision made in darkness. THULMIN means injustice or transgression or displacement of right and wrong of.
Mina: from/ of
Allatheena: those who
Hadoo: were jewish
Note: the root is H-W-D and it means repentance and return to God. It is used mainly to point to Judaism, often specifically. HADOO is an action that is completed. It means: the action of becoming Jewish happened by the subject (third person plural).
Harramna: We made forbidden to violate/ forbidden
Note: the root is Ha-R-M and it means “forbidding and forbidden to violate”. HARRAMNA is an action that is completed. It means: the action of making the object (TAYYIBATIN= good things) forbidden happened by the subject (first person plural).
AAalayhim: upon them
Tayyibatin: good things
Note: the root is TTa-Y-B and it means good according the plane of thought. Conceptually, it is used for any good entity or any entity that is good in it’s nature and effect. Religiously speaking, this suggests that things that are allowed by the religion are good for us, while things that are forbidden are not good for us. TAYYIBATIN means: good things.
Ohillat: made permitted
Note: OHILLAT is derived from the root Ha-L-L and it means settling. Conceptually, this settling can be in time or place of quality as in settling or solving a problem, a knot and it can extend to acceptable or enjoined words or deeds. This sentence gives the context of acceptable or enjoined or allowed. OHILLAT is an action that is completed. It means: the action of making the object (Tayyibatin= good things) permitted or enjoined happened by an undeclared subject.
Lahum: to them
Wabisaddihim: and by their blocking/ opposing
Note: WA is a letter that links what is before with what is after. This link is through inclusion, either one is included in the other or they are all included in the bigger sentence or bigger picture. WA often corresponds with “and/ addition” but the more encompassing meaning is in inclusion one in another or all in a bigger picture or sentence. Bi denotes that what comes after is a tool and/or an object or an association with an action that was mentioned. If it is an object of the action then it makes it stronger. SADDI is derived from the root Sad-D-D and it means in concrete when the clapping of the hands or the expression of puss when the skin is squeezed opposite itself. Therefore, the concept carries the meaning of something opposite something or something blocking something or tightening on something as in squeezing it and making it difficult to proceed. SADDI is an action that is completed. It means: the action of blocking and tightening the object (Aan Sabeel about path of) happened by the subject (HIM= them).
AAan: about/ away from
Note: this word takes the meaning of from, but at times takes the meaning of away from and so on.
Sabeeli: path of
Note: the root is S-B-L and it means and it means flowing water from the falling rain from the sky to the flowing water in the river and so forth. This is the concrete and the other uses are related as in path, which allows the flow, to soft flowing hair and so forth. SABEELI is the flowing water or the path of. It takes the meaning of path or even the trip on the path.
Katheeran: lots/ many /often
Note: the root is K-TH-R and it means many or numerous in all the planes of thought. KATHEERAN means: numerous or many or a lot
Salaam all and have a great day.