Wa Huwa Al-Qāhiru Fawqa `Ibādihi ۖ Wa Yursilu `Alaykum Ĥafažatan Ĥattá 'Idhā Jā'a 'Aĥadakumu Al-Mawtu Tawaffat/hu Rusulunā Wa Hum Lā Yufarriţūna
The Aya says:
And He is the victorious over His slaves, and He sends upon you (plural) safe keepers until when death came to one of you, our envoys took him and they do not act in haste.
My personal note:
The term HAFATHATAN was translated as safe keepers which is the meaning of the term. In here, the term takes two potential meanings and they both apply:
1- They are charged with keeping us safe from harm or death before the time for it comes.
2- They keep our records of action safely kept so that we are to answer to them in the day of judgment.
Both meanings were mentioned elsewhere in the Qur’an and in this general statement both meaning fall under Hafatha and apply.
The Aya ends up in “they do not act in haste” in order to reassure us that no one dies before his or her time had come. It is also to reassure us that it our death will happen in the best way that is applicable to each one of us.
All this does not mean that we should not keep working on our safety and on ensuring that we live a healthy life. All that action that we do, still falls under the safe keep and is covered by this Aya.
Translation of the transliterated words:
Wa Huwa: And He
Alqahiru: the victorious/ the dominant
Note: the root is Qaf-H-R and it means victory of one entity upon another in case of dispute or fight, and clearly establishing dominion and authority. ALQAHIRU means the victorious
Note: the root is F-W-Qaf and it means above or rising (aboving). This is used for waking up from sleep because it is a form of rising, but it is also used in many other forms according to the plane of thought of the sentence. FAWQI means above.
Aaibadihi: His slaves/ His servants
Note: the root is Ain-B-D and it means slave or servant. AAIBADI means slaves or servants of. HI means Him and points to Allah.
Wa Yursilu: and He sends
Note: WA is a letter that links what is before with what is after. This link is through inclusion, either one is included in the other or they are all included in the bigger sentence or bigger picture. WA often corresponds with “and/ addition” but the more encompassing meaning is in inclusion one in another or all in a bigger picture or sentence. YURSILU is derived from the root R-S-L and it means to envoy someone or a group of people or animals. The concrete word is RASL and it means a group of people or animals that were sent by their owners or senders. YURSILU is an action that is being completed or will be completed. It means: the action of sending or envoying is happening or will be happening by the subject (third person singular).
`Alaykum: upon you (plural)
Ĥafažatan: safe keepers
Note: the root is Ha-F-THa and it means preservation and protection, and within that concept, also maintenance and upkeep. In one word, the concept of safe keeping comes to mind. This concept of safe keeping will then depend on the context to understand it’s specific meaning in the sentence. HAFATHATUN are the safe keepers. In this context, it can mean either ones that keep humans safe from harm unless Allah wills it and also the safe keepers of the record of the humans and their actions. Both meanings are correct and applicable.
Note: the root is J-Y-Hamza and it means coming. One concrete word that is derived from this word is the pool where the rain water comes. JAA is an action that is completed and that is derived from the root. It means that the action of coming happened by the subject (third person singular pointing to ALMAWTU= the death) to the object (AHADAKUM= one of you (plural))
Ahadakumu: one of you/ anyone of you
Note: the root is W-Ha-D and it means one. AHADA means one of or anyone of. KUM means plural you.
Almawtu: the death/ death
Note: the root is M-W-T and it means death or the opposite of life or the lack of voluntary movement. ALMAWTU means the death or just death.
Tawaffat/hu: took him
Note: the root is W-F-Y and it means meeting dues. This then takes different meanings according to the plane of thought of the sentence. One meaning could be death since it is a meeting of dues, or just a taking of someone or something depending on the situation, or other forms of meeting dues. TAWAFFAT/HU is an action that is completed. It means: the action of making the object (HU= him) meet dues happened by the subject (RUSULUNA= our envoys/messengers). So, here the meeting of the dues is death because it was preceded by death.
Rusulunā: our messengers/ envoys
Note: RUSULUNA is derived from the root R-S-L and it means to envoy someone or a group of people or animals. The concrete word is RASL and it means a group of people or animals that were sent by their owners or senders. RUSULU means messengers of and is the plural of Rasul who is the one that is sent and is used to mean the messenger because he was sent by the sender to the receiver. NA means us or ours.
Wa Hum: and they
Lā Yufarriţūna: do not act in haste
Note; LA is for negation of the action that comes next. YUFARRITOONA is derived from The root F-R-TTA and it means in concrete when there is haste in action or quickness and rapidity. It can carry a negative connotation in that things made in haste are generally poorly thought out and are often on the wrong and loosing end. YUFARRITOONA is an action that is being completed or will be completed. It means: the action of making haste or making lost in haste is happening or will be happening by the subject (third person plural). However this action is negated by the LA that preceded it.
Salaam all and have a great day.