Walaw shaa Allahu ma ashrakoo wama jaAAalnaka AAalayhim hafeethan wama anta AAalayhim biwakeelin
The Aya says:
And if Allah willed, they would not have become polytheists. And We did not appoint you (O Muhammad) upon them as safe keeper, nor are you upon them a guarantor.
My personal note:
This Aya brings about some area that can be misunderstood. The term “If Allah Willed then would not have become polytheists” can be understood in one of two ways and only one of them is correct:
1- That Allah made them become polytheists. This is the wrong understanding.
2- That Allah left it ultimately up to them whether they become polytheists or monotheists.
The reason that the first understanding is considered wrong is because there are many passages that emphasize that Allah did not make them polytheists nor act unjustly towards them. Therefore the second understanding is the correct one. There are some statements in the Qur’an that talk about Allah misguiding some people. Those statements are generally in relation to people that Allah misguides because they have originally neglected or abandoned some of His commandments or reminders. Therefore the responsibility rests with them and they can get out of it the moment they start paying attention to those reminders which Allah put in their paths every now and then for them to pay attention to.
Translation of the transliterated words:
Walaw: and if
Shaa: He willed/ He entitied
Note: the root is Sh-Y-Hamza and it means entity. SHAA is an action that is completed that is derived from the root. It means that the action of entitying happened by the subject (third person singular). Therefore it means: He entitied and in this context, it takes the meaning He willed.
Note: Allah is the subject of the action that was mentioned earlier SHAA.
ma ashrakoo: they would not have made partners/ they would not have become polytheists
Note: the MA preceding the action is a response to the conditional if that came before. It is a response in negation. ASHRAKOO is derived from the root SH-R-K and it means partner or partnership and with this partnership is a measure of equality or being on par. ASHRAKOO is an action that is completed. It means: the action of making partner to an undeclared object (pointing to God in this context) happening by the subject (third person plural).
Wama: and not
jaAAalnaka: We made you (singular)/ We appointed you
Note: JaAAaLNA is derived from the root J-Ain-L and it means making, forming or transforming something that already exists. Conceptually, it takes the meaning of transformation more often than formation. JaAAaLNA is an action that is completed. It means: the action of transforming or making the object (KA= singular you) by the subject (first person plural). In this context it takes the form of appointing and job description.
Aaalayhim: upon them
hafeethan: safe keeper
Note: the root is Ha-F-THa and it means preservation and protection, and within that concept, also maintenance and upkeep. In one word, the concept of safe keeping comes to mind. This concept of safe keeping will then depend on the context to understand it’s specific meaning in the sentence. HAFEETH is the safe keeper. In this context, it can mean that they are the ones who are responsible for their own safe keep especially after the message reached them.
wama anta: and you (singular) are not
Aaalayhim: upon them
Biwakeelin: a guarantor/ responsible
Note: Bi in this context is mainly to emphasize what comes next. WAKEEL is derived from the root W-K-L and it means entrusting a matter to another, or trusting the guarantee or guardianship or responsibility of another. WAKEEL is the person who is guardian or guarantor.
Salaam all and have a great day.