The Aya says:
Say (O Muhammad): then to Allah belongs the deep reaching proof. So, if He willed, He would have guided you all.
My personal note:
This Aya continues the argument that started in the previous Aya and whereas the Aya 148 points to the fact that Allah did not compel anyone to become a Mushrik/ polytheist. Aya 149 completes the picture that Allah also did not will that everyone should be compelled to guidance. Therefore the conclusion would be that guidance or lack of guidance becomes a matter of free will dependant on some action or inaction on the part of the person.
One may run into statements of the Qur’an where Allah guides this particular group or that Allah misguides another particular group. Those Aya are understood in the context that the ones that Allah guides had done something that makes them deserving of Allah’s mercy and that includes guidance. Whereas the group that gets misguided is the group that is punished by misguides for that they decided to ignore such as the remembering Allah or the thanking of Allah and so on.
Translation of the transliterated words:Qul: Say/ communicate/respond
Note: the root is Qaf-W-L and it means saying or communicating. QUL is an order or a request addressed to a singular. It means: say or communicate.
Falillahi: then to Allah belongs
Alhujjatu: the proof/ the convincing argument/ convincing point
Note: . ALHUJJATU is derived from the root Ha-J-J and it means pursual as in pursuing something. This is also used to mean pursuing knowledge or a place or pursuing a certain proof. Therefore the root can mean a pilgrimage, where one pursues a goal or a meeting with others in order to pursue certain proofs. It also can be used to mean times or things that happen once a year because the pilgrimage or the pursual of certain things or places occur about once a year. In this context, it is pointing to proofs or arguiing about proofs. ALHUJJATU means the proof or our convincing argument.
Albalighatu: the effective far reaching/ deep reaching
Note: the root is B-L-GHain and it means in concrete a child that became adult and therefore reached maturity. conceptually, it is used for language that is mature and clear as well as for anything that reached it’s intended design. ALBALIGHATU means the one that reaches it’s target and being effective
Falaw: so if
Shaa: He willed/ He entitied
Note: the root is Sh-Y-Hamza and it means entity. SHAA is an action that is completed that is derived from the root. It means that the action of entitying happened by the subject (third person singular). Therefore it means: He entitied and in this context, it takes the meaning He willed.
Lahadakum: then He would have guided you (plural)
Note: the root is root H-D-Y and it means gift in all it’s forms and it carries the meaning of guidance since guidance is a gift. LAHADAKUM is a response to the conditional that was mentioned earlier.
ajmaAAeena: all/ altogether
Note: the root is J-M-Ain and it means gather the different parts together or putting things together.